June 25, 2024

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U.S. latest edition (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released

U.S. latest edition (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released


U.S. latest edition (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released

The latest and most complete inventory of carcinogens! An article takes you to understand 120 clear carcinogens! These 20 types are the most common in life.

In the latest edition (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 8 new carcinogens are on the list! 

Among them, Helicobacter pylori is listed as a clear carcinogen, and six haloacetic acid (HAA) substances used as flame retardants and tap water disinfection are listed as reasonably suspected human carcinogens.


Let us take a look at the latest and most comprehensive list of carcinogens, as well as those carcinogens hidden in our daily life.

U.S. latest edition (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released

Image source: “National Toxicology Program” official website

Added 8 new definite carcinogens

1. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is listed as a definite carcinogen

In recent years, a series of studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection can significantly increase the risk of gastric cancer, and at the same time people have found a variety of mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori induces gastric cancer.


2. Antimony trioxide is listed as a reasonably suspected carcinogen

Antimony trioxide is an inorganic compound widely used in plastics, textiles and other chemical products as a flame retardant. Workers who manufacture antimony trioxide may be exposed to the substance for a long time at work, and the substance may also be released from poor-quality furniture or carpets, and long-term exposure may induce cancer.


3. Haloacetic acid by-products produced after tap water disinfection

Tap water requires a large amount of chlorine-based disinfectants during the production process, which may react with some compounds in the water to form haloacetic acid, which has teratogenic and carcinogenic side effects. There are six new haloacetic acids in this report, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCA), chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA). , Tribromoacetic acid (TBA).


In recent years, the progress of tap water disinfection and filtration technology can significantly reduce the content of haloacetic acid in water.

At present, various countries also have standards to limit the content of haloacetic acid in tap water. Therefore, we can use tap water with confidence and don’t have to worry!



This “carcinogen list” must be collected!

The International Agency for Research on Cancer under the World Health Organization has sorted out and announced four types of carcinogens according to their correlation with cancer. It should be said that it is the most comprehensive “list of carcinogens” so far.

  • Category 1 is a confirmed carcinogen to humans;

  • Category 2 is limited evidence of human carcinogenicity;

  • Category 3 is suspected to be carcinogenic to humans;

  • Class 4 is substances that may not be carcinogenic to humans.


There are 120 types of Class 1 carcinogens (the highest level of carcinogens), including alcoholic beverages, salted fish, air pollution, solar radiation, and smoking, which are closely related to people’s daily life.

 Being able to stay away from these 120 “category 1 carcinogens” can help you stay away from cancer.




1. 20 kinds of carcinogens in daily contact

1. Acetaldehyde associated with the intake of alcoholic beverages: Acetaldehyde is an intermediate product of ethanol metabolism in the human body. Acetaldehyde can cause cancer by causing DNA damage or double-strand breaks in cells.

2. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages: Ethanol can not only metabolize to produce acetaldehyde, but also generate a large number of oxygen free radicals under the action of enzymes, leading to canceration of liver cells.

3. Alcoholic beverages: Carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene) may also be produced during the fermentation and distillation of wine and alcoholic beverages.

4. Smoking: Cigarettes contain a large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzopyrene, phenolic compounds, formaldehyde and other carcinogens.

5. Second-hand tobacco smoke: in the cold smoke exhaled by the smoker, the tar content is twice as much as that in the hot smoke inhaled by the smoker, and the content of benzopyrene is twice as much.

6. Smokeless Tobacco: Including chewing tobacco and snuff, etc., the content of nicotine and nitrosamines is higher, and it contains carcinogens such as formaldehyde, arsenic, and cadmium.

7. N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK): two exist in tobacco and nitrogen nitrosamine compounds in smoke can induce a variety of cancers. 

8. Processed meat (intake): Cured meat contains more nitrite and phosphate, and smoked meat contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (benzopyrene).

9. Chinese-style salted fish: The salting process produces a lot of nitrite, which may be related to nasopharyngeal cancer. 

10. Betel nut: The alkaloids contained in betel nut can damage the cell membrane of mucosal cells and damage the DNA of cells.

11. Betel nut chews containing tobacco: the cause of cancer is similar to that of betel nut, and tobacco increases the toxicity of betel nut. 

12. Betel nut chews without tobacco: the cause of cancer is similar to that of betel nut. 

13. Outdoor air pollution: It can easily lead to lung cancer, and the risk of bladder cancer will also increase. 

14. Outdoor air pollution containing particulate matter: Inhalable particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 are also considered to be extremely harmful to human health and increase the risk of cancer. 

15. Diesel engine exhaust: Exhaust gas contains hundreds of different compounds, which have been confirmed to be associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer. 

16. Indoor emissions from household coal burning: it will emit carcinogens represented by benzopyrene, which can easily induce lung cancer. 

17. Benzopyrene: A chemical found in coal tar, which is commonly found in vehicle exhaust, smoke from burning tobacco and wood, and char-grilled foods. 

18. Benzene: basic petrochemical raw materials, paints, wallpapers, carpets, printers, automobile exhaust, synthetic fibers, building decoration materials, wood-based furniture and cigarette smoke all contain benzene. The metabolites of benzene in the human body can cause DNA strand breaks and fragments, and induce leukemia. 

19. Formaldehyde: Ordinary people are mainly exposed to formaldehyde through artificial panels in newly renovated homes. It can lead to nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neonatal malformation, childhood leukemia, myelogenous leukemia, etc. 

20. Untreated or lightly treated mineral oil: used to make hair cream, hair oil, wax, lipstick, face oil, skin care cream, etc., containing a variety of hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other impurities may induce cancer.

2. 18 kinds of radiation carcinogens

21. Solar radiation: Excessive exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays can lead to skin cancer. 

22. Ultraviolet radiation: damages the DNA in skin cells, leading to skin cancer. 

23. Ultraviolet luminous tanning equipment: releases ultraviolet radiation, which damages the DNA in skin cells and causes skin cancer. 

24. Zanthoxylum toxin (8-methoxypsoralen) with ultraviolet A radiation: clinically abroad, Xanthoxylum toxin plus ultraviolet light therapy is mainly used to treat chronic skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but it may induce cell canceration. 

25. Ionizing radiation (all types): Ionizing radiation is radiation that can ionize the affected substance, mainly including alpha rays, beta rays, proton flux, neutron flux, X-rays, and gamma rays. Ionizing radiation can induce various types of DNA molecular damage, thereby causing cancer. 

26. Radioactive nuclides, α-particle radiation, internal deposition: produced when heavy atoms (such as uranium, radium) or artificial nuclides decay, which are equivalent to helium nuclei, and can cause tissue damage and cancer. 

27. Radionuclide, beta particle radiation, internal deposition: produced when radioactive nuclei decay, equivalent to electrons, can cause tissue damage and canceration. 

28. X-ray and gamma-ray radiation: produce ionizing radiation that damages cellular DNA. 

29. Neutron radiation: Artificial methods release neutrons from atomic nuclei, which can cause malignant tumors and leukemia. 

30. Fission products, including strontium-90: heavy nuclear fission produces a variety of radionuclides. Fission products are widely used in industry, agriculture and medicine. For example, krypton-85 is used as a beta radiation source and energy source for self-luminous lamps; cesium-137 is a gamma radiation source; strontium-90 is a beta radiation source; Medically used for clinical diagnosis. Strontium-90 can easily cause leukemia, and cesium-137 can cause liver cancer and kidney cancer. 

31. Radioactive iodine, including iodine-131: commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, also has cancer risk. 

32. Radon-222 and its decay products: natural stone may contain radioactive radon, and building materials are the main source of indoor radon.

33. Radium-224 and its decay products: All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, and ionizing radiation can make fluorescent substances glow. 

34. Radium-226 and its decay products.

35. Radium-228 and its decay products.

36. Thorium-232 and its decay products: Natural radionuclides, which can appear in large-scale earth and rock engineering such as mining and tunneling, and nuclear fuel waste treatment. 

37. Plutonium: a radioactive element, an important raw material for the atomic energy industry, and a fission agent for nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons. Plutonium is easy to accumulate in the liver and bones, causing cancer in human tissues. 

38. Phosphorus-32, phosphate form: a radioactive isotope of phosphorus. Phosphate is mainly used for adjuvant therapy of certain malignant tumors, and it is also carcinogenic.




3. 12 kinds of viruses, bacteria, parasites and toxin carcinogens

39. Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection): Hepatitis B virus can cause DNA rearrangement and loss of DNA fragments, and reduce the ability of liver cells to degrade other carcinogens. 

40. Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection): The core protein of the virus is closely related to liver cancer. 

41. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (infection): AIDS virus, which can synthesize DNA and integrate into the DNA of the host cell, causing the cell to undergo cancerous transformation, especially when the cellular immunity is destroyed and the immune surveillance function is lost , Cell cancer becomes more prone to occur. 

42. Human papillomavirus: More than 130 kinds of DNA viruses have been isolated, divided into high-risk and low-risk types, and different types will cause different clinical manifestations. Among them, high-risk types 16 and 18 are the main types that cause cervical cancer. 

43. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: change the DNA of host lymphocytes, make cells proliferate and divide continuously, and induce leukemia.

44. Epstein-Barr virus: a herpes virus that spreads through saliva and mainly causes acute infectious mononucleosis. It is associated with various malignancies such as T-cell lymphoma. 

45. Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus: A herpes virus that can cause Kaposi’s sarcoma (endothelial cell tumor) and primary effusion lymphoma, among others. 

46. ​​Helicobacter pylori (infection): It is mainly transmitted through mouth-mouth and feces-oral, and settles in the stomach for a long time, which will gradually destroy the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and cause gastric cancer. 

47. Clonorchis sinensis (infection): Also known as liver fluke, it is mainly infected by eating uncooked freshwater fish or shrimp containing Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae. Can cause bile duct epithelial cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, mainly adenocarcinoma. 

48. Moschus sinensis (infection): Infected by eating raw fish containing metacercariae, parasitizes in the liver and bile ducts, and induces bile duct cancer. 

49. Schistosoma haematobium (infection): mainly distributed in Africa, southern Europe and the Middle East, can cause bladder cancer. 

50. Aflatoxin: It is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is mainly found in moldy peanuts, corn, soybeans, rice, wheat and other grains, nuts and oil products, and is the main cause of diseases such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and intestinal cancer.


4. 22 drug-like carcinogens

51. Busulfan: an anticancer drug for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. It destroys the structure and function of DNA through alkylation with guanine in cellular DNA, and may also cause cancer. 

52. Chlorambucil: an anticancer drug, used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma, several types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some breast cancers, etc. It will cause cross-linking of DNA strands and affect DNA function, thereby causing cancer. 

53. Naphthalene mustard: an anticancer drug, used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cause DNA chain cross-linking affect DNA function, thus causing cancer. 

54. Cyclophosphamide: an anticancer drug, used to treat malignant lymphoma, acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and also used to treat breast cancer, testicular tumors, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, etc., interfere with DNA and RNA functions. 

55. Melphalan: Anticancer drug used to treat multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. It works by disrupting the structure of DNA, thereby causing cancer. 

56. Etoposide: anticancer drug, mainly used in the treatment of small cell lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, malignant germ cell tumor, leukemia, etc. Acting on DNase, the damaged DNA cannot be repaired, thus causing cancer. 

57. Combination of etoposide, cisplatin and bleomycin: combined chemotherapy, mainly used for ovarian germ cell malignant tumors and laryngeal cancer, etc., may also cause cancer. 

58. MOPP and other combination chemotherapy containing alkylating agents: the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, there is a risk of carcinogenesis. 

59. Semustine: an anticancer drug, mainly used to treat malignant melanoma, malignant lymphoma, brain tumor, lung cancer, etc., and has a risk of carcinogenicity. 

60. Tamoxifen: Anticancer drug, used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, has cancer risk. 

61. Triamidophos: an anticancer drug, used to treat ovarian cancer, has a risk of causing cancer. 

62. Quaoshufan: anticancer drug, mainly for lung cancer, with cancer risk. 

63. Azathioprine: a drug used for anti-rejection during organ transplantation, inhibits the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein, and can induce cancer. 

64. Cyclosporine: A drug used to fight rejection in liver, kidney and heart transplants. Due to its immunosuppressive function, it increases the risk of carcinogenesis. 

65. Diethylstilbestrol: a synthetic estrogen. Can cause adenocarcinoma of the female reproductive system and cause fetal carcinogenesis through the placenta.

66. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy: It may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. 

67. Estrogen-progesterone menopausal therapy (combined use): it may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. 

68. Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (combined use): can induce liver cancer and increase the risk of breast cancer and cervical cancer.

69. Phenacetin: A fever-reducing and pain-relieving drug that has been banned in many countries. Large doses may induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.

70. Analgesic mixture containing phenacetin: used to treat fever, headache, toothache, neuralgia, etc., can cause severe kidney damage and liver damage, and induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer. 

71. Aristolochic acid: Some studies believe that aristolochic acid induces liver cancer mainly through gene mutation. 

72. Plants containing aristolochic acid: Aristolochic acid is widely found in Aristolochiaceae plants. The common medicinal materials containing Aristolochia include Aristolochia, Tianxianteng, Qingmuxiang, Xugufeng, Guanmutong, Guangmu Fangji, Asarum, etc.


5. 28 kinds of industrial products and their pollutant carcinogens

73. Cadmium and cadmium compounds: Cadmium is mainly used in the manufacture of alloys, nickel-cadmium batteries, solder and semiconductor materials. 

74. Chromium (6-valent) compounds: Wastewater from leather manufacturing and metallurgy and chemical industry pollutes water bodies, farmland and aquatic products, and enters the human body. Chromium (6 valent) compounds have strong oxidizing properties and are harmful to the digestive tract, respiratory tract, skin and mucous membranes. 

75. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds: Arsenic exists in rocks as inorganic arsenic compounds in nature. Arsenic trioxide is commonly known as arsenic. Arsenic-containing wastewater and waste discharged from industrial and mining development, and arsenic-containing pesticides and herbicides used in agriculture are all sources of arsenic. Can cause skin cancer and lung cancer. 

76. Nickel compounds: can be used in the manufacture of ceramics, glass, catalysts, magnetic materials, electronic components and storage batteries, etc. Nickel compounds can induce oncogene expression and cancer cell proliferation in humans. 

77. Beryllium and beryllium compounds: beryllium and beryllium compounds are mainly used in alloys, etc. After entering the human body, insoluble beryllium oxide is mainly stored in the lungs, which can cause lung cancer. 

78. Asbestos: Mainly used in fire-resistant asbestos textiles, water pipes, insulation panels, and heat insulation materials in buildings, electrical appliances, automobiles, and household products. Asbestos itself is non-toxic, but fine asbestos dust will adhere to and deposit in the lungs, causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum. 

79. Fluoro-Amphibole Fibrous Hornblende: Similar to asbestos, it is easy to deposit in the lungs and induce lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

80. Erionite: A relatively rare natural ore with properties similar to asbestos, which can cause mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum. 

81.2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: the most toxic monomer among all types of dioxins. It is not produced artificially and has no purpose. It is produced after burning garbage and industrial waste without treatment. products emitted. 

82.2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran: a type of dioxin, which can cause damage to the immune system, nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive function. Long-term excessive intake may cause multiple systemic complications. site of malignant tumors. 

83. Dioxin-like PCBs with WHO Toxic Equivalent Factor (TEF): Classified under the name of “dioxin” with similar toxicity. 

84. Polychlorinated biphenyls: artificially synthesized organic substances, industrially used as heat carriers, insulating oils and lubricating oils. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive tract, and enriched in the human body, causing diseases of the brain, skin, and internal organs and affecting the nervous, reproductive, and immune systems. The organ that produces cancer is mainly the liver. 

85.3,4,5,3′,4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126): It is mainly used as a heat-resistant and flame-resistant plasticizer, and is associated with the occurrence of liver cancer. 

86. Pentachlorophenol (polychlorophenol): It is mainly used as a herbicide in rice fields, a preservative and an antifungal agent for textiles, leather, paper and wood. Teratogenic and carcinogenic to humans. Dioxin-like compounds are released when burned. 

87.4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA): Curing agent for synthetic rubber and epoxy resin, which has a risk of carcinogenicity. 

88.4-Aminobiphenyl: It is an intermediate of pesticides and dyes, mainly used in organic synthesis, manufacture of dyes and rubber anti-aging agents, etc. It can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin. 

89. Benzidine: The intermediate of synthetic dyes, long-term exposure can easily induce bladder cancer. 

90. Benzidine produced by dye metabolism: Some dyes may produce benzidine through metabolism, which will lead to structural and functional changes in the DNA of human cells. 

91.2-Naphthylamine: used in the manufacture of dyes and organic synthesis, also used as organic analytical reagents and fluorescent indicators. Long-term exposure has the risk of inducing bladder cancer. 

92. O-toluidine: It is mainly used as an intermediate in dyes, pesticides, medicines and organic synthesis, and can induce bladder cancer. 

93. Vinyl chloride: used as a comonomer of various polymers, an important raw material in the plastics industry, and also used as a refrigerant, etc., can induce hepatic angiosarcoma, etc. 

94. Trichlorethylene: used as an analgesic and metal degreasing agent, but also as an extractant, bactericide, refrigerant and clothes dry cleaning agent. It is associated with various cancers including liver cancer and kidney cancer. 

95.1,3-Butadiene: It is a raw material for the manufacture of synthetic rubber, synthetic resin, nylon, etc. It can cause malignant tumors in various tissues and organs such as cardiovascular, lung, stomach, liver, breast and kidney. 

96. Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane): an agricultural insecticide, commonly known as 666. It is associated with breast cancer and colorectal cancer. 

97.1,2-Dichloropropane: It is a raw material for the manufacture of pesticides, insecticides, detergents, rubber and pharmaceuticals, and is considered to be the culprit of the frequent occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma in the printing industry in Japan. 

98. Ethylene oxide: a fungicide in washing, pharmaceutical, printing and dyeing industries, long-term exposure will increase the risk of leukemia and hematopoietic malignancies. 

99. Bis(chloromethyl) ether and chloromethyl ether (industrial grade): Both are mainly used in the production of anion exchange resins and sulfadiazine drugs, etc. Long-term exposure can cause lung cancer. 

100. Sulfur mustard gas: the chemical weapon mustard gas, scientific name dichlorodiethyl sulfide, can cause skin and immune system cancer.



6. 20 kinds of industrial production process and occupational exposure carcinogens

101. Painters, painters, plasterers, etc. (occupational exposure): Pigments contain heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and chromium, and paints and organic solvents contain benzene and formaldehyde. Long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer. 

102. Rubber manufacturing industry: During the production process, there are many chemical additives, and it is easy to be exposed to carcinogens such as aniline, which can induce bladder cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer and leukemia. 

103. Iron and steel casting (occupational exposure): multiple links may lead to a high incidence of cancer , such as furnace smoke may contain benzopyrene.

104. Hematite mining (underground): Exposure to dust during mining may cause lung cancer. 

105. Crystalline silica dust in the form of quartz or cristobalite: Workers who have been engaged in mining, quarrying, and gravel operations for a long time are prone to frequent inhalation of silica dust and have a higher risk of cancer. 

106. Welding fumes: Contains harmful substances such as manganese dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fluorides, and ozone, as well as fine metal particles such as heavy metal cadmium. 

107. Wood dust: Contains carcinogens such as wood tar and benzopyrene. 

108. Leather powder: It is common in the shoemaking process and can easily cause nasal cavity cancer. 

109. Soot (occupational exposure of chimney sweeps): Carcinogens such as benzopyrene exist in soot. 

110. Coal gasification: Dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other pollutants and carcinogens such as coal tar, benzene and phenol will be produced in the industrial process. 

111. Coal tar distillation: Carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene will be produced in the industrial process. 

112. Coal tar pitch: the residue after distillation and extraction of coal tar, which is mainly used to produce pitch coke, road construction pitch, various pitch anticorrosion paints, etc., and contains carcinogens such as benzopyrene. 

113. Shale oil: The oil contained in shale may cause occupational skin cancer. 

114. Coke production: Carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene will be produced in industrial processes. 

115. Acheson method related to occupational exposure (silicon carbide produced by electric arc furnace): silicon carbide is mainly used to manufacture wear-resistant materials, circuit components, photovoltaic products, etc., and coal tar and benzopyrene will be emitted during smelting, which cause cancer things. 

116. Aluminum production: Dust such as alumina and petroleum coke, and harmful substances such as fluoride, sulfide, asphalt smoke, and carbon monoxide may be produced during aluminum production. 

117. Production of auramine: Auramine is a chemical used as a dye and a dye intermediate for dyeing fabrics, paper and leather. The production process has been linked to an increase in bladder cancer. 

118. Magenta production: Magenta is mainly used for dyeing silk, acrylic fiber, wool and other textiles. Workers who produce magenta dye have an increased risk of bladder cancer. 

119. Strong inorganic acid mist: refers to mist-like acid substances formed by inorganic acids such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid. It mainly appears in the process of using acids in chemical, electronic, metallurgy, electroplating, textile, and machinery manufacturing industries. It is carcinogenic risk. 

120. Use strong acid to produce isopropanol: Isopropanol is an important chemical raw material, mainly used as dehydrating agent and cleaning agent in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, spices, paint and electronics industries. 


Finally, it needs to be emphasized that it does not mean that exposure to these substances will cause cancer, but that these substances are high-risk substances that cause cancer.

There is evidence that long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, we should minimize the exposure to these substances in our lives, so as to reduce the risk of cancer.








U.S. latest edition (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released

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