May 26, 2024

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Scientists Identify Gut Bacteria and Metabolites that Lower Diabetes Risk

Scientists Identify Gut Bacteria and Metabolites that Lower Diabetes Risk



Scientists Identify Gut Bacteria and Metabolites that Lower Diabetes Risk

Scientists Find Gut Bacteria that Prevent Diabetes! Scientists have comprehensively analyzed the relationship between human dietary fiber intake and type 2 diabetes, identifying 9 related gut bacteria and discovering gut bacteria metabolites that reduce the risk of diabetes.

Increasing dietary fiber intake has become an important strategy for improving blood sugar regulation, enhancing insulin sensitivity, and preventing type 2 diabetes. However, faced with the temptation of highly processed foods, it is difficult for people to achieve a high-fiber diet. In light of this, scientists have sought alternative ways to prevent diabetes by understanding the mechanism behind dietary fiber diets, in order to develop more feasible prevention strategies.

Researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the United States conducted a prospective study on nearly ten thousand community residents, analyzing their diet, gut microbiota composition, serum metabolite levels, and other data. They deciphered the magical secret of using dietary fiber diets to prevent diabetes. They identified 9 human gut bacterial genera related to dietary fiber intake and type 2 diabetes, and revealed several metabolites produced by gut microbiota that are associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.

This study explored the interaction between dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort rather than animal models, providing us with a unique and valuable perspective to understand the complex associations. The paper was recently published in the journal Circulation Research.

Scientists Identify Gut Bacteria and Metabolites that Lower Diabetes Risk

Humans and animals can actually be seen as “superorganisms” composed of their own cells, microorganisms, genes, and metabolites. Metabolites produced by microorganisms enter the bloodstream and affect our metabolic health.

There is already a lot of research providing evidence for complex associations between the composition of the microbiota and disease phenotypes. However, to further understand how microorganisms specifically affect the development of diseases, we need to go beyond existing correlational studies and explore the specific mechanisms behind them.

In this study, the researchers first used data from 8185 American community residents to reveal a significant association between higher dietary fiber intake and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. Compared with the lowest three quartiles of dietary fiber intake (3.4-8.4g/1000 kcal per day), the highest three quartiles of dietary fiber intake (10.8-22.1g/kcal per day) were associated with a 29% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (95% CI 6%-47%; P=0.023).

Subsequently, they used participants’ fecal samples for multi-omics analysis, identifying 9 gut bacterial genera and enzymes that mediate the correlation between dietary fiber intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that gut microbiota may affect the risk of type 2 diabetes by participating in the metabolism of dietary fiber.

Using metabolomics techniques, the researchers analyzed metabolites produced by gut microbiota. The results suggest that dietary fiber mainly relies on two gut bacterial genera, Faecalibacterium and Butyrivibrio, to build a barrier against type 2 diabetes. These two bacterial genera, which are colonized in the intestines, play an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role and improve glucose metabolism by producing beneficial metabolites such as indolepropionic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, cinnamoylglycine, and urolithin.

Other fiber-related genera (e.g., Roseburia and Ruminococcus) have an impact on the risk of type 2 diabetes independent of the metabolites they produce. In other words, some gut microbiota may affect human metabolic health through other pathways, such as influencing the activation and proliferation of T cells.

Of course, there are also dissenting voices. The researchers identified several potential pathogenic gut microbial genera, Lachnoclostridium and Acidaminococcus, which can produce metabolites such as N-acetylglucosamine and hydroxyaspartic acid, which have been shown to increase insulin resistance and obesity. Their colonization is associated with lower fiber intake and higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

In summary, researchers have explored the mechanism of dietary fiber intake in preventing type 2 diabetes based on a population cohort. Compared with animal model experiments, their research results are more relevant to actual human health conditions. This research highlights the important role of gut microbiota in human metabolic health and disease, providing strong scientific support for precision nutrition and personalized medicine.

Scientists Identify Gut Bacteria and Metabolites that Lower Diabetes Risk

Reference:

[1]https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.123.323634

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