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Coffee can’t prevent cardiovascular disease
Coffee can’t prevent cardiovascular disease. Can coffee not prevent cardiovascular disease or even increase the risk of coronary heart disease? ! Two Mendelian random analyses by Chinese and foreign scholars.
In recent years, many observational studies have found that drinking coffee may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, liver disease and other chronic diseases and death. Therefore, some people suggest that adults without special diseases can drink coffee as part of a healthy lifestyle.
However, a Mendelian random analysis based on the British Biodatabase published in the American Heart Association on December 8 showed that regular coffee may not reduce the risk of coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
From more than 400,000 people in the UK Biodatabase, researchers found 51 new gene loci related to caffeine intake. There are many such loci in central nervous system genes.
The researchers used these gene loci to conduct a two-sample Mendelian random analysis in an independent cohort and found that there was no causal association between caffeine intake and coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
However, Cox regression analysis showed that moderate caffeine intake (coffee or tea) is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
When you consume 121 to 180 mg of caffeine from coffee every day, the risk of coronary heart disease is the lowest, which is 23% lower than when you don’t drink coffee.
When you consume 301 to 360 mg of caffeine from coffee every day, the risk of type 2 diabetes is the lowest, which is 24% lower than when you don’t drink coffee.
The researchers pointed out that the results of the study do not recommend drinking coffee or tea to prevent coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
Coincidentally, Liu Xinfeng, Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University School of Medicine, and others also conducted a two-sample Mendelian random analysis using the British biological database.
The study, published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, suggests that drinking coffee may actually increase the risk of coronary heart disease.
From a genome-wide association study of approximately 370,000 people based on the British Biological Database, Liu Xinfeng and others identified 15 coffee-drinking SNPs and adopted 14 independent SNPs. Mendelian random analysis was performed.
Both fixed-effects and random-effects model analysis showed that coffee intake increased by 50% and the risk of coronary heart disease increased by 32%.
After removing a single nucleotide polymorphism that caused obvious heterogeneity, coffee intake increased by 50% and the risk of coronary heart disease increased by 24%. After further removing SNPs related to smoking and drinking, similar results were obtained.
Multivariate Mendelian random analysis after adjusting for smoking and drinking showed that coffee drinking is still causally associated with the occurrence of coronary heart disease (OR=1.35).
Among the 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 5 are related to coronary heart disease risk factors such as body mass index, triglycerides, and heart rate.
The researchers analyzed the remaining 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms as instrumental variables and found that the coffee intake determined by genes is still associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (OR=1.19).
Therefore, Liu Xinfeng and others believe that people at high risk of coronary heart disease should limit coffee drinking.
The author said that previous studies have shown that caffeine can raise blood pressure, and higher coffee intake can lead to aggravation of inflammation, which may be part of the reason why drinking coffee increases the risk of coronary heart disease.