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5 childhood infectious diseases with high incidence in winter
5 childhood infectious diseases with high incidence in winter. 5 infectious diseases of children, the winter is a high incidence period, parents should pay attention!
The cold wave is coming, so cold! Parents, have you taken measures to keep their babies warm? The arrival of the deep winter means that the virus has begun to spread, and the season of high incidence of childhood epidemics has also arrived. For children whose immune system is not yet mature enough, some bacteria and viruses will take advantage of it.
The children in the family are sick, and the children are uncomfortable. The parents are busy and heartbroken. So how should parents identify and prevent common epidemics in winter?
Influenza is not a common cold. It is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza virus. It is mainly transmitted through its close respiratory droplets. It can also be transmitted through direct or indirect contact with mucous membranes such as the mouth, nose, and eyes, and occurs in places where people gather Cluster epidemic.
Typical symptoms include sudden onset, fever, headache, body aches, fatigue and other systemic poisoning symptoms, while respiratory symptoms are mild. A small number of severe cases progressed rapidly and could die from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or multiple organ failure.
Annual flu vaccination is the most effective way to prevent flu. Also pay attention to keep children warm and add good clothes according to temperature changes. Pay attention to ventilation, keep the air fresh, develop good personal hygiene habits, wash hands frequently, balance nutrition, exercise moderately, and ensure adequate daily sleep.
Hand, foot and mouth disease
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common infectious disease in children caused by a variety of enteroviruses. The main symptoms are oral ulcers, pain, bad breath, salivation, refusal to eat, anorexia, irritability, low or moderate fever, pharyngeal congestion, swollen tonsils, visible rashes on the palms of the hands, first with red macules and then quickly turning to blisters , The rash can subside within a week without leaving pigmentation, scaling or scars.
Develop good hygiene habits. Wash your children’s hands with hand sanitizer or soap before meals and after going out and after going out. Do not drink raw water or eat raw or cold food. During the epidemic, avoid going to public places with crowds and poor air circulation. Pay attention to the isolation of patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.
Mumps is a common winter respiratory tract infection in children and adolescents. It is an acute and systemic infection caused by the mumps virus. It is mainly characterized by parotid gland swelling and pain. The main symptoms are fever, chills, headache, sore throat and other general symptoms. The parotid glands under the ears of one or both ears are enlarged and painful, and the pain is even more painful when chewing.
Vaccinate mumps vaccine, take your children to crowded places as little as possible during the season of high incidence, and develop good hygiene habits. At the same time, pay attention to clean the mouth, eat liquid or soft food, avoid acidic foods, and drink plenty of water.
Varicella is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by varicella-zoster virus, which is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact. The main manifestations are maculas, papules, and herpes on the skin and mucous membranes in batches, which may be accompanied by fever, headache, sore throat and other symptoms. Some cases may be complicated by encephalitis and pneumonia.
Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent chickenpox. Two injections of chickenpox vaccine can achieve better prevention effects. Do not go to crowded public places during the epidemic and pay attention to air circulation.
Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract caused by group A streptococci. Mainly manifested as fever, angina, diffuse bright red skin rash and obvious desquamation after the rash. Cause more serious complications, such as acute nephritis, rheumatic fever, infective endocarditis, chorea, etc., need to be given regular antibiotic treatment, after regular treatment, generally can receive good treatment results.
Promoting personal and environmental hygiene during the epidemic season, and advocating ventilation and wet cleaning are the keys to the prevention and control of scarlet fever.
In addition to paying attention to the above infectious diseases, parents should also pay attention to the following 4 points in winter:
- 1. Under the premise of sunny weather in winter, please make sure to open the window twice every morning and evening for about 30 minutes each time. Ensure indoor air circulation and reduce the proliferation of bacteria in the air.
- 2. Children’s resistance is gradually improved during physical exercise. When children are exercising outdoors, their body will often be stimulated by the cold, which can enhance their body’s resistance to colds, bronchitis and other common winter diseases.
- 3. When exercising, be careful that children should not wear too thick or bloated, so as not to hinder the body’s exercise, increase the burden on the body, and even sweat too much, which may lead to a cold.
- 4. Teach children not to breathe through their mouths, but to breathe in the nasal cavity or a mixture of nose and mouth to reduce the adverse irritation of cold air to the respiratory tract, and to avoid inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused by cold air stimulation.
Finally, I wish you all a healthy and happy growth!
(source:chinanet, reference only)