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Seven nutrients the human body needs!
Seven nutrients the human body needs! Why do people eat every day, but also eat so many kinds of food? That’s because our body needs balanced nutrients! The nutrients contained in each food are different, so we need to get them from different foods. So what are the nutrients our body needs every day? First look at what are nutrients?
Nutrients refer to substances that are essential for human growth, development, reproduction and maintenance of health. Traditionally, it is considered to be mainly divided into six categories: water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals. Later, dietary fiber was also classified as an essential nutrient category. Therefore, there are generally seven types of nutrients required by the human body.
1. Water-the source of life (about 60% of the human body)
Water is an important part of the human body. For example, 80% of the weight of the human brain is water. In stages, the water in infants accounts for about 80% of their body weight, adults account for about 60%, and the elderly account for only about 55%. Therefore, the process of human aging is actually a process of gradual loss of body water. While water transports nutrients to the various organs of the human body, it also takes metabolic waste out of the body. Water also regulates the body’s body temperature and pH, and participates in various biochemical reactions in the body.
The increase or decrease of body water will have a short-term effect on body weight. In contrast, it takes days or weeks for fat to have a visible effect on weight. A 70 kg adult contains about 40 kg of water, so if you lose 5% of the water, you will lose about 2 kg of weight. Loss of less than 5% of water is considered to be mild dehydration (Mild Dehydration), and you will feel thirsty at this time.
Therefore, in general, in addition to the normal diet of three meals a day, people also need to add about 1000ml of water every day, which is about two bottles of mineral water (standard bottles) or three or four large glasses of water (the American dietary guidelines recommend that men The daily water intake is 13 cups and women are 9 cups, but these waters contain all the water in the diet).
It is best to develop the habit of intermittent drinking. Don’t wait until you are thirsty, because when the brain sends a signal of thirst, the body is actually dehydrated. Excessive dehydration time will not only cause a decline in physical fitness, metabolism, and resistance, but also make the skin lose luster and elasticity, become dry, dull yellow, and increase wrinkles. Women who want to stay young must insist on drinking enough water. After all, women are made of water.
2. Proteins-the cornerstone of life (about 18%-20% of the human body)
The term protein (Proteins) first appeared in the Greek word more than 150 years ago, meaning “of prime importance” (of prime importance).
The human body is composed of various organs, which are composed of countless different cells, and the main structure of each cell is protein. Protein is closely related to the growth of the body, tissue repair, internal environment regulation, disease resistance, brain information transmission, blood coagulation and other important functions. About 40% of the body’s protein is present in muscle tissue, which determines the body’s ability to exercise. Muscle protein can also release energy when the body needs it (such as hunger, exercise).
Protein is composed of amino acids, and protein must be converted into amino acids to be absorbed and utilized by the body. Among the 20 known amino acids, 8 of them (9 for infants and young children) cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained from food, so they are called “essential amino acids”.
If the adult lacks protein, the muscles will become loose and inelastic, the hair will often appear yellow and the nails will be broken easily. Infants and young children grow rapidly, and their protein requirements are higher than adults. On average, they need more than 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Meat, eggs, milk, beans, etc. are good sources of protein.
3. Lipids fat-the fuel of life (about 15% of the human body)
People often say that they are too fat, high blood lipids, and heart disease, so many people think that fat is definitely not a good thing. In fact, fat is also precious! Nutrition experts have always advised people to consume moderate in fats, but they have never said no-fat.
The energy provided by each gram of fat is generally more than twice the energy provided by each gram of carbohydrates or protein. Fat is the main nutrient for storing and supplying energy, but its role is far more than providing fuel for life to the human body. It also acts as a buffer for human organs, supporting the protection of internal organs, joints and tissues; protecting organs from temperature changes; promoting the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients (such as vitamin A, D, E, K) and phytochemicals; also Provides the main components that make up the cell membrane. After all, there is no cell without a cell membrane, and without a cell… you know. The energy provided by daily fat should account for 20% to 25%.
Because most foods contain fat, as long as the diet is balanced, there is no need to lack fat. On the contrary, people tend to consume too much fat under today’s standard of living.
4. Carbohydrates-the driving force of life (about 1%-2% of the human body)
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for human life activities, and they are abundantly present in foods such as noodles, rice, grains, potatoes and beans. Any carbohydrate is finally broken down into sugar (such as glucose and fructose) after a series of biochemical reactions in the body, so it is also called sugar. The food for most organs is glucose. In addition to providing energy to the body, the role of carbohydrates is also manifested in the composition of antibodies, cell membranes, nerve tissue, genetic material ribonucleic acid and other substances with important functions.
Many beauties who lose weight tend to shy away from “carbohydrates” and often refuse to eat staple foods. In fact, this is not advisable, because the energy supply of carbohydrates should account for 60%~65% of the food you eat every day. Only 1%~2% is directly stored in the body, most of which are used as energy to provide the body’s daily activities. Only when the body’s energy intake is greater than the energy consumed, the excess carbohydrates can be converted into fat and stored in the human body. Therefore, as long as we move and let the consumption exceed the energy intake, even if we eat two more buns and rice, it will not make you a fat sister.
5. Vitamins-the catalyst of life (about 1% of the human body)
Vitamins are nutrients without energy. They are substances that the human body only needs to play a key role in a small amount. If the amount is insufficient or not at all, it may cause irreversible damage to the human body. Vitamins act as coenzymes or promote enzyme activity in the body, and are of great significance for maintaining human growth and development and physiological functions.
Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. They can be stored in the liver or other fatty tissues and do not need to be provided every day. If the accumulated amount is too large, there will be toxic reactions; Vitamins mainly include B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6, B9 (folic acid), B12 and vitamin C.
Water-soluble vitamins cannot be synthesized by the human body, nor stored in the human body. These nutrients are also easily lost in the process of food processing. Therefore, they need to be supplemented from food every day. Pay attention to the processing method and avoid frying and frying as much as possible. For other high-temperature cooking methods, it is best to eat foods rich in these vitamins raw.
6. Minerals-the structure of life (about 4% -5% of the human body)
Water, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and vitamins will undergo complex biochemical reactions in the body. The carbon atoms (C) will combine with oxygen atoms (O) to become carbon dioxide (CO2), which disappears in the air; hydrogen atoms ( H) It will combine with oxygen atoms (O) to produce water, which will be used or excreted with physical activity; only minerals will become ash and remain, about two kilograms. Although the amount is not large, its effect on the human body is too great.
Minerals are the main components of bones. If the minerals are completely removed from the bones, only protein remains (these proteins are mainly collagen), and these leftover proteins can be bent or even tied into a knot. In other words, it is minerals that provide the hardness of life. Minerals are also an important component of enzymes, which play an important role in maintaining osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, and maintaining the normal function of nerves and muscles. There are more than 40 kinds of minerals, including calcium, iron, zinc, potassium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, etc. that we are familiar with. Each element has its own unique importance and cannot be replaced. There are also synergistic and antagonistic effects among the various elements.
Minerals cannot be synthesized in the human body and must be ingested from food, and the minerals in the body will be excreted with the body’s metabolism such as urination, sweating, urination, defecation, etc., so you must supplement enough minerals from your diet every day substance.
7. Dietary Fiber—Supplement to life (about 0.01%)
Dietary fiber refers to the remnants of plant cells that are not digested by the human body. The vast majority of dietary fiber does not produce any usable calories from being eaten to being excreted. Only a small part of dietary fiber can be broken down into substances that can be absorbed by the large intestine through the action of enzymes produced by billions of bacteria in the large intestine.
Therefore, dietary fiber can be divided into water-soluble dietary fiber and non-water-soluble dietary fiber. Water-soluble dietary fiber is soluble in water and easily digested by fermenting bacteria in the large intestine. These dietary fibers are usually found in oats, barley, beans or citrus fruits. These dietary fibers can improve the blood sugar reaction, and affect the absorption rate of nutrients and the role of parts. In addition, it also has the function of adsorbing toxins and heavy metals, removing garbage from the body, and regulating balance. Insoluble dietary fiber (such as the bran of whole grains) cannot be digested and absorbed by the human body, and only stays in the intestines, but it can stimulate the production of digestive juice and promote intestinal peristalsis. It can absorb water to facilitate defecation and also help in The establishment of the flora also plays a positive role.
Dietary fiber cannot be digested and absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, nor can it produce energy. Therefore, it was once regarded as a “non-nutritive substance” and did not get enough attention. However, with the research on dietary fiber, people have gradually realized its important role in human health, especially today when the diet composition is getting more and more refined, people have begun to consciously eat some high dietary fiber foods, such as some coarse grains and potatoes. Vegetables and fruits, or additional dietary fiber. For example, apple collagen, which has been very popular in recent years, is a water-soluble dietary fiber, known as the “soft gold” in apples. Especially the elderly, because of slow bowel movements, more dietary fiber should be added.
(source:internet, reference only)