December 1, 2022

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How does the human body regulate water and electrolytes?

How does the human body regulate water and electrolytes?

 

How does the human body regulate water and electrolytes?   The body’s adjustment of water and electrolyte requires three basic conditions.

How does the human body regulate water and electrolytes?


The body’s adjustment of water and electrolyte requires three basic conditions:

  • Maintain the volume of body fluids;
  • Maintain the osmotic pressure of body fluids;
  • Maintain the concentration of hydrogen ions.


These three maintenances are achieved through five aspects:

Homeostasis

According to Bernard’s concept of internal environment stability, human cells must have a constant internal environment for normal metabolism. The so-called internal environment refers to the environment in which the body’s cells are bathed and lived, that is, the extracellular fluid.

Hypothalamic thirst center

The thirst center and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) center that innervates the pituitary gland are closely adjacent and partially overlapped. When the human body loses 1% to 2% of water, regardless of whether there is intracellular dehydration, it can usually cause a physiological reaction of thirst.

kidney

Concentration and dilution of urine; ADH has the effect of increasing the permeability of the tube wall to water on the secretory distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.

Osmolality

There are special osmotic pressure receptors in the vascular bed supplied by the internal carotid artery, whose role is to specifically control the drainage function of the kidney, in fact, to regulate the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid. The stimulation of the neurohypophysis to secrete antidiuretic hormone depends on the relative relationship between the osmotic pressure inside and outside the cell. The role of antidiuretic hormone may be in the distal renal tubules.

Aldosterone

Aldosterone is a hormone that regulates blood volume and extracellular fluid volume, and its main role is to regulate the kidney’s ability to reabsorb sodium. The stimulation of the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone may depend on the efficiency of the heart’s discharge of blood and the blood volume of the head, that is, on the changes in the volume of whole blood and extracellular fluid.

 

 

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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