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What are the factors that cause bullae?
What are the factors that cause bullae? Pulmonary bullae refers to the obstruction of small bronchial valves due to some reasons, causing excessive expansion, rupture, and fusion of alveoli to form air sac-containing swellings. On imaging, bullae appear as air sac-containing cavities.
The main cause of pulmonary bullae is due to various congenital or acquired factors that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia and chronic inflammatory stimulation of the lungs, causing bronchospasm, destruction of the pulmonary septum, and bronchial valve obstruction, which eventually leads to the gradual expansion, rupture, and fusion of the alveoli And formed. The disease is more common in adolescents, and acquired in adults with inflammatory diseases of the small airways, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema and other diseases in adults and the elderly.
Pulmonary bullae refers to the obstruction of small bronchial valves due to some reasons, causing excessive expansion, rupture, and fusion of alveoli to form air sac-containing swellings. On imaging, bullae appear as air sac-containing cavities.
Generally, inflammatory lesions secondary to bronchiole, such as tuberculosis or emphysema, can also be caused by certain congenital factors, and there are also idiopathic bullae with unclear etiology.
Once a bullae ruptures, it can cause complications such as spontaneous pneumothorax and blood pneumothorax. The condition is mainly improved through general treatment and surgical treatment, and the prognosis of this condition is generally good.
Tall and thin adolescents with flat chest bullae:
Pulmonary blister grows too fast with height during the growth and development period, while the blood vessels and interstitial growth are relatively slow, and there is a relatively ischemic area at the apex of the lung, which causes ischemic damage in this area, plus lung and bronchial infections and other factors , Causing the alveolar wall to thin, expand, and rupture, and multiple ruptured alveoli fuse with each other to form bullae. These bullae are mostly located at the apex of the upper lung lobe or under the visceral pleura in the peripheral part of the lung. They can be single or multiple in the peripheral parts of the lung.
Bullae secondary to non-specific inflammation of the bronchioles:
The causes of such pulmonary bullae are repeated infections of lung tissue, bronchospasm, destruction of the lung compartment, formation of cancer scars, and bronchial valve obstruction, which are more common in middle-aged and older patients with long-term chronic lung diseases, especially chronic bronchi Inflammation, emphysema and bronchial asthma. Emphysema pulmonary bullae is a late manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of these bullae have thick and tough fibrous cyst walls and remain separated by the remaining alveolar septum, which rarely produces spontaneous pneumothorax.
Large pulmonary alveoli often have a large volume and a diameter of more than 25px. They not only occur at the edge of the lung, but also in the lungs. They often exist in multiple, and they are often multiple in both lungs. The main impact on the human body is that the increase in the volume of the pulmonary bullae can compress the surrounding lung tissues and form local atelectasis, resulting in reduced ventilation or diffusion. The patient has obvious clinical symptoms such as chest tightness, shortness, qi, and even breathing difficulties .
(source:internet, reference only)