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Metformin: Summary about its new effects
Metformin: Summary about its new effects. It must be reminded that all drugs have certain side effects. Although metformin has multiple potential effects, as a hypoglycemic prescription drug, people without indications must not take it without authorization and must follow the doctor’s advice.
A new role is here again-the latest research shows that metformin may reduce the risk of colon polyps in patients with acromegaly
Metformin has new effects
A recent study aimed to evaluate the incidence of colon polyps before and after metformin treatment in patients with acromegaly, and to explore its potential protective effects.
Data show that 30-40% of patients with acromegaly will develop colon polyps, leading to an increased risk of colon cancer. Despite the controversy, there is new evidence that metformin may protect patients with colon polyps with or without diabetes. Researchers are currently exploring the role of metformin in disease prevention.
This study screened 153 patients with acromegaly and included 58 patients (36-82 years old). Multivariate analysis showed that colon polyps and metformin intake were significantly negatively correlated (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06~ 0.77, P=0.01), but it is related to age (P=0.10), overweight/obesity (P=0.54), smoking (P=0.15), acetylsalicylic acid intake (P=0.99), course of disease (P=0.96) ), somatostatin analog therapy (P=0.70) has nothing to do.
In general, this study shows that metformin may have a certain protective effect on the occurrence and development of colon polyps in patients with acromegaly. This result needs to be confirmed in a wider research population.
Potential multiple effects
The reason why metformin is called the magic drug is that although it is an old drug with a long history, it has been continuously discovered that it may have other potential multiple effects, including but not limited to, weight loss, More than 20 kinds of anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, etc.
1. Weight loss
Metformin is a hypoglycemic agent that can lose weight. It can increase insulin sensitivity and reduce fat synthesis. For many type 2 sugar lovers, weight loss itself is a thing that is conducive to stable control of blood sugar.
A study by the United States Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) research team showed that in an unblinded study period of 7-8 years, patients who received metformin treatment lost an average of 3.1 kg in weight.
2. Anti-aging effect
A few days ago, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a clinical trial of “metformin against aging”. The reason why foreign scientists use metformin as an anti-aging drug candidate may be because metformin can increase the number of oxygen molecules released into cells. Above all, this seems to increase the body’s fitness and prolong life.
3. Reverse biological age
The official website of the international science and technology journal “Nature” published a blockbuster news. Reports show that a small clinical study in California showed for the first time that it is possible to reverse the human epigenetic clock. In the past year, nine healthy volunteers took a mixture of growth hormone and two diabetes drugs, including metformin. Measured by analyzing the markers on a person’s genome, their biological age has dropped by an average of 2.5 years.
Research results show that a team led by Professor Scott Budinger of Northwestern University in the United States confirmed in mice that metformin can prevent inflammation caused by smog, prevent immune cells from releasing a dangerous molecule into the blood, inhibit the formation of arterial thrombosis, and reduce the heart. The risk of vascular disease.
5. Assist in quitting smoking
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have found that long-term nicotine use can lead to the activation of the AMPK signaling pathway, which is inhibited during nicotine withdrawal. Therefore, they concluded that if drugs are used to activate the AMPK signaling pathway, it may alleviate the withdrawal response.
Metformin is an AMPK agonist. When the researchers gave metformin to mice that had nicotine withdrawal, they found that it relieved the mice’s withdrawal. Their research shows that metformin can be used to help quit smoking.
Preclinical studies and clinical studies have shown that metformin can not only improve chronic inflammation by improving metabolic parameters such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and atherosclerotic dyslipidemia, but also has a direct anti-inflammatory effect.
Studies have pointed out that metformin can inhibit inflammation, mainly through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent or independent inhibition of nuclear transcription factor B (NFB).
7. It can promote hair growth and treat hair loss
The team of Huang Jing, a Chinese scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, discovered that drugs such as metformin and rapamycin can stimulate the hair follicles in the resting phase of mice to enter the growth phase and promote hair growth. Related research has been published in the well-known academic journal Cell Reports.
Moreover, when scientists used metformin to treat patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in China and India, they have also observed that metformin is associated with reduced hair loss.
In addition, different research results show that there are new discoveries about metformin in some diseases that affect women’s health.
8. Reduce the risk of miscarriage and premature delivery for certain pregnant women
A study in The Lancet showed that metformin may reduce the risk of miscarriage and preterm delivery in certain pregnant women.
According to reports, scientists from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and St. Olavs Hospital conducted a nearly 20-year study and found that patients with polycystic ovary syndrome taking metformin at the end of 3 months of pregnancy may reduce post-term miscarriage and miscarriage. Risk of premature birth.
9. Improve polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperandrogenemia, ovarian dysfunction, and polycystic ovary morphology. Its pathogenesis is unclear, and patients often have different degrees of hyperinsulinemia. Studies have shown that metformin can reduce insulin resistance, restore its ovulation function, and improve hyperandrogenemia.
10. Combination medication may treat triple-negative breast cancer
The team led by Dr. Marsha rich rosner of the University of Chicago found that the combination of metformin and another old drug, heme (panhematin), can target the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer that seriously threatens women’s health.
And there is evidence that this treatment strategy may be effective for a variety of cancers such as lung cancer, kidney cancer, uterine cancer, prostate cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Related research has been published in the top journal Nature.
11. Cardiovascular protection
Metformin has cardiovascular protective effects and is currently the only hypoglycemic drug recommended by the diabetes guidelines as having clear evidence of cardiovascular benefit. Studies have shown that long-term treatment of metformin is significantly related to the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and type 2 diabetic patients who have already developed cardiovascular disease.
12. Improve intestinal flora
Studies have shown that metformin can restore the proportion of intestinal flora and make it change in a direction that is conducive to health. It provides an advantageous living environment for the beneficial bacteria in the intestines, thereby lowering blood sugar and positively regulating the immune system.
13. It is expected to treat some autism
Recently, researchers at McGill University discovered that metformin can treat some forms of Fragile X syndrome with autism, and this innovative study was published in the journal NatureMedicine, a subsidiary of Nature. At present, autism is one of many medical conditions that scientists believe can be treated with metformin.
14. Reverse pulmonary fibrosis
Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham found that in human patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and mouse pulmonary fibrosis models induced by bleomycin, the activity of AMPK in fibrotic tissues is reduced, and the tissues resist cells The apoptotic myofibroblasts increased.
Using metformin to activate AMPK in myofibroblasts can re-sensitize these cells to apoptosis. Moreover, in the mouse model, metformin can accelerate the ablation of the already produced fibrotic tissue. This study shows that metformin or other AMPK agonists can be used to reverse fibrosis that has already occurred.
15. Reverse cognitive impairment
Researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas have created a mouse model that mimics pain-related cognitive impairment. They used this model to test the efficacy of multiple drugs.
Experimental results show that treatment of mice with 200 mg/kg body weight of metformin for 7 days can completely reverse the cognitive impairment caused by pain.
Gabapentin, which treats neuralgia and epilepsy, has no such effect. This means that metformin can be used as an old drug to treat cognitive impairment in patients with neuralgia.
16. Inhibit tumor growth
A few days ago, according to Singularity.com, scholars from the European Institute of Oncology discovered that metformin and fasting can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of tumors in mice.
Through further research, it was found that metformin and fasting inhibit tumor growth through the PP2A-GSK3β-MCL-1 pathway. The research was published on Cancer Cell.
17, can prevent macular degeneration
Dr. Yu-Yen Chen from Taichung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan, China recently discovered that the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes taking metformin is significantly lower. This shows that while controlling diabetes, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of metformin have a protective effect on AMD.
18. May reduce adverse effects of glucocorticoids
Recently, “The Lancet-Diabetes and Endocrinology” published a study-the results of the study showed that in a phase 2 clinical trial, metformin used in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases can improve metabolic health and reduce glucocorticoid treatment Serious side effects.
Experiments have suggested that metformin may act through the key metabolic protein AMPK, and the mechanism of action is exactly the opposite of glucocorticoids, and has the potential to reverse the side effects caused by the massive use of glucocorticoids.
19. Hope to treat multiple sclerosis
Previously, a research team led by Robin JM Franklin of the University of Cambridge and his disciple Peter van Wijngaarden published an article in the top journal “Cell Stem Cells” that they found a special type of aging neural stem cells that can recover after treatment with metformin. In response to differentiation-promoting signals, it reappears youthful vitality and further promotes the regeneration of nerve myelin.
This discovery means that metformin is expected to be used in the treatment of irreversible neurodegeneration-related diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
20. It is expected to improve the risk of kidney failure and death from kidney disease
WuXi AppTec’s content team Medical New Vision released news that a study of 10,000 people showed that metformin may improve the risk of kidney failure and death from kidney disease.
A study published in the American Diabetes Association (ADA) journal “Diabetes Care” (Diabetes Care) showed that the medication and survival analysis of more than 10,000 people showed that type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) take Metformin is associated with a reduction in the risk of death and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and does not increase the risk of lactic acidosis.
Although there are so many exciting discoveries about metformin, the medicine is three points poisonous. Don’t buy the medicine yourself and use it under the guidance of a doctor.
21. It can protect the stomach and reduce the risk of stomach cancer
Recently, the official website of “Cell Stem Cell”, a subsidiary of the world’s top scientific journal “CELL”, updated the latest research on metformin: Metformin can regulate the metabolism of stem cells in the stomach and promote them to differentiate into gastric parietal cells that produce gastric acid.
Studies have shown that the AMPK metabolic pathway promotes the generation of acid-secreting parietal cells by stem cells. Metformin slows down the proliferation of progenitor cells by activating AMPK and KLF4, and can also induce parietal cell maturation by activating AMPK and PGC1a. This is why metformin increases acid secretion and Lowering people’s risk of gastric cancer provides potential hints.
In addition, a 2018 study showed that the use of metformin reduced the risk of gastric cancer by 51% in diabetic patients with Helicobacter pylori eradicated in a sustained and dose-response manner.
22. Take preoperatively to reduce the mortality of patients
According to WuXi AppTec’s account medicine new perspective news, a recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association-Surgery found that the classic hypoglycemic drug metformin has another benefit in addition to blood sugar control: taking metformin before surgery may be It is related to the postoperative mortality of diabetic patients and the reduced risk of readmission.
23. Extend the survival time of patients with advanced bowel cancer with KRAS mutations
According to Singularity.com, a team of Chinese scientists, Gao Guoquan, Sun Yat-sen University and Zhongshan School of Medicine recently published important research results in the famous journal PNAS.
They analyzed the treatment data of thousands of patients with advanced bowel cancer and found that among patients with advanced bowel cancer with KRAS mutations, compared with other types of hypoglycemic drugs, the overall survival time of intestinal cancer patients taking metformin was 37.8 longer than that of other types of hypoglycemic drugs. Months, the median progression-free survival time (mPFS) was extended by 8.1 months.
24. Preventing cancer and stroke trends
According to news from the new medical perspective, the 80th Scientific Meeting of the American Diabetes Association (2020 ADA Annual Meeting) announced the latest data from the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcome Study (DPPOS)-Metformin has continued to reduce the risk of diabetes for 22 years, showing the trend of preventing cancer and stroke.
25, repair brain damage
In the journal Nature Medicine, researchers from the Institute of Medical Sciences of the University of Toronto in Canada and the Toronto Children’s Hospital published the results of the test: For children with brain tumors who have received craniocerebral radiotherapy, metformin is more pronounced than placebo Improved their working memory and statement memory function, repaired white matter damage.
26. Make esophageal squamous cells
Recently, the oncology journal Clinical Cancer Research published the results of a Phase II clinical study completed by researchers from Shantou University and other institutions.
The paper shows that the hypoglycemic drug metformin may benefit patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by improving the immune microenvironment (TIME) in tumor lesions.
27, or reduce the risk of dementia
Recently, the journal Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment of the American Diabetes Association published a study from Australia-the above study found that patients with type 2 diabetes who took metformin had slower cognitive decline and a lower risk of dementia.
The first author of the study, Professor Katherine Samaras, an endocrinologist at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, said, “Metformin is safe and widely used. These data indicate its new potential. For patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin may bring cognition beyond sugar control. Health benefits. More broadly, for people at high risk of dementia and their families, this may change their lives.”
28. Work in conjunction with androgen blockade therapy
Studies have shown that combined therapy with androgen blockade (ADT) and metformin may be a feasible treatment for prostate cancer.
According to the article “Mol Cancer Ther: Metformin can synthesize lethal metabolism to target androgen-deficient prostate cancer cells” recently published by the WeChat public account “MedSci Metz”, researchers have recently investigated the response of prostate cancer (PC) cells to androgens Blocking therapy treats the mechanism of aging, and it is determined whether metformin and androgen blockade therapy have a synergistic effect in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
The researchers pointed out that the combination of androgen blockade therapy and metformin may be a viable treatment method that can eliminate PC cells that persist after androgen blockade therapy.
29. Metformin may improve the survival rate of lung cancer patients
According to news from the new medical perspective, a recent study published in the British Journal of Cancer showed that in all lung cancer patients, taking metformin is associated with improved survival, especially in local (TNM stage II- Stage III) in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma.
The article pointed out that among lung cancer patients, diabetes is one of the common underlying chronic diseases. A number of studies have observed that in lung cancer patients with diabetes, taking metformin has a positive effect on survival. However, clinical trials in patients with non-diabetic lung cancer have not reached a consistent conclusion.
30. Or significantly reduce COVID-19 mortality in women with type 2 diabetes or obesity
Recently, according to Bio Valley reports, a study published in Lancet Healthy Longev recently showed that metformin can significantly reduce the mortality of COVID-19 in women with type 2 diabetes or obesity.
It must be reminded that any drug should have some side effects. Although metformin has multiple potential effects, as a hypoglycemic prescription drug, people without indications must not take it without authorization and must follow the doctor’s advice. As for those exciting new discoveries and possible new effects, more time and scientific verification are needed.
(source:internet, reference only)