January 30, 2023

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The FASEB J:  Molecular mechanism of the human brain’s response to injury

The FASEB J:  Molecular mechanism of the human brain’s response to injury

 

The FASEB J:  Molecular mechanism of the human brain’s response to injury.   In response to brain injury, neural stem cells will aggregate and migrate to the injury site. This kind of cell aggregation is the key. If there is no aggregation, the cells cannot move. , Then what is the molecular mechanism? Recently, in a research report published in the international journal The FASEB Journal, scientists from Yale University and other institutions created a 3D model to study the internal working mechanism of the brain. .

In the article, researchers discovered for the first time that metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) secreted by endothelial cells may induce cell damage response processes. This discovery may be expected to help develop new strategies for the treatment of human brain damage. Researchers specifically analyzed brain damage caused by stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological diseases; in the case of brain damage, neural stem cells can gather and migrate to the subventricular area where they live In addition to the subventricular zone, this single path direction is partly guided by the chemical signals emitted by the endothelial cells of the inner wall of the blood vessel and the pericytes surrounding the endothelial cells. In addition, the researchers also focused on the analysis of the factors that initiate this process.

 

The FASEB J:  Molecular mechanism of the human brain's response to injury

Researcher Rita Matta said that we are very interested in studying the mechanism that induces this aggregation effect of neural stem cells. In this article, we use a variety of models to analyze the key mechanisms involved. Researchers have observed that endothelial cells not only promote the migration of neural stem cells, but also promote cell aggregation by secreting MMP2. We believe that MMP2 is a key enzyme that can degrade the surrounding matrix of tissues, where there are all the proteins that neural stem cells can normally adsorb, but on the contrary, it is like a “snow sweeper”. MMP2 can gather together for neural stem cells. Cluster and migrate to create a path.

In particular, the researchers found that the secretion of MMP2 activates a protein called N-cadherin (N-cadherin), which can act as a cell adhesion agent; this process causes the arm-shaped neural stem cells Stretching to bring it together, this arm-like structure is very important for this process, because without it, cells cannot migrate to the site of brain damage; the researchers confirmed that the leading cells can be cut off by using a microfluidic system and laser The “arms” of the “arm” can block the accumulation and migration of neural stem cells even in the presence of endothelial cells.

Previously, researchers developed polyethylene glycol magnetic beads to transport neural stem cells and endothelial cells to treat brain damage; researcher Gonzalez said that by creating a technology that can be simulated in human brain tissue, we can better understand the human body Neurological processes, and use the same tools to develop therapeutic strategies to repair damaged or impaired tissues; the latest research provides very valuable information for the development of this new technology.

Finally, the researchers said that the more we know about the process by which endothelial cells affect neural stem cells, the more we can develop new delivery vehicles in the encapsulated magnetic beads. Currently, researchers are combining different factors, different proteins and molecules. To help improve the efficiency of current transportation vehicles.

 

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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