June 22, 2024

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The intestine is closely related to the colon cancer and  length of life

The intestine is closely related to the colon cancer and  length of life

 

The intestine is closely related to the colon cancer and  length of life.  Change the intestinal flora to prevent colon cancer. 

 

A bad intestine will also lead to a bad mood

The intestine is the largest detoxification organ of the human body, and it is responsible for most of the detoxification tasks of the human body. Even if a person is at rest, the intestine is still in motion. In addition to digesting and absorbing food, it also participates in the regulation of many important organ functions.

In addition, the intestine can be called the second “brain” of human beings. There are 100 billion nerve cells in the intestine, which are mainly responsible for people’s subconscious activities, and 95% of the serotonin, dopamine and many kinds of hormones that make people feel happy are synthesized in the intestine. Therefore, a large part of emotions will be affected by the enteric nervous system.

The intestine is closely related to the colon cancer and  length of life

 

 

Dad habits make the intestines age prematurely

The intestines also have age. As long as the intestines are young, it is easier for people to live longer and healthier lives. As the physiological age increases, the intestinal flora will change. Take bifidobacteria in the beneficial flora of the intestine as an example. Most people have a gradual decrease in bifidobacteria when they are adolescents. When they are young, the proportion of bifidobacteria gradually decreases from 40% to about 10%, and the intestines begin to age; After entering middle-aged and old age, the number of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria has further reduced. Therefore, the number of bifidobacteria is often used to determine the age of the intestinal tract, and also reflects a person’s physical condition. To ensure the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestines and make the intestines younger, you can eat some foods that provide a beneficial environment for the intestines. For example, soybeans contain soy oligosaccharides, which help the growth of beneficial bacteria.

 

 

Intestinal microbes are directly related to the occurrence of cancer

The value of intestinal microbes is what we usually call the “intestinal flora”. The number of such microbes is more than 10 times that of the human body’s own cells. They play an extremely important role in the metabolism of nutrients, the body’s own development, immunity and disease production. Important role.

In recent years, with the deepening of research, scientists around the world have turned their attention to the study of intestinal microbes. Many research results have shown that intestinal microbes are directly related to the pathogenesis of many diseases, especially cancer. Research reports on the relationship between microorganisms and cancer.

 

1. PNAS: modified lactic acid bacteria reversed colon cancer in mice

A study published on PNAS revealed that eating genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus can reset the immune response of mice that may cause cancer and shrink precancerous colon polyps. Previous studies on the probiotic gut microbe Lactobacillus acidophilus have shown that by deleting the gene for a cell surface molecule called lipoteichoic acid (LTA), the bacteria can reduce the inflammatory response that causes colitis in mice.

To investigate whether lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is also one of the factors that are increasingly suspected of contributing to the overactive inflammatory response of tumors, Mansour Mohamadzadeh and colleagues took mice with pathological inflammation and precancerous colon polyps orally Lactobacillus acidophilus that lacks lipoteichoic acid (LTA). According to the authors, this therapy resets the overactive inflammatory response and restores the intestinal environment of the test subjects to a healthy balance, thereby freeing the intestinal mucosa to treat and degenerate colon polyps.

 

2. Science: Gut bacteria can help treat cancer

According to two new reports, the bacterial communities living in our intestines can help determine the efficacy of certain anti-cancer therapies, including drugs that were previously thought to act directly on tumor cells. In both cases, the gut microbiota seems to be able to modulate the immune system’s response triggered by these treatments. Researchers found that in mice with sterile intestines, these therapies were less effective in attacking tumors.

Noriho Iida and colleagues found that anti-cancer immunotherapy and a platinum-based chemotherapy are less effective in mice without gut microbiota. In this case, bacteria are needed to activate a certain anti-tumor innate immune response.

 

3. J Natl Cancer Inst.: Decreased intestinal microbiome is related to colon cancer

A recent article published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute stated that reduced human gut microbial diversity is associated with colon cancer.

On the issue of the correlation between intestinal microbes and colon cancer, the conclusions of basic research and epidemiological research are to the left. Therefore, there is no clear conclusion on this issue.

Dr. Jiyoung Ahn of the New York University School of Public Health collected the excreta of 47 colon cancer patients and 94 normal people whose height and body mass index were consistent with the patients, and extracted DNA from them. Next, the scientists sequenced all the DNA to determine the genomes of the intestinal flora of the patient group and the control group. As a result, it was found that the types of microorganisms in patients with colon cancer decreased.

Scientists further analyzed the types of intestinal flora of colon cancer patients. It was found that the species of Clostridium decreased, and that Clostridium can degrade edible fiber into butyrate. Butyrate may prevent colon cancer and inflammation. At the same time, the bacteria of Clostridium and Porphyromonas increased, which are related to inflammation of the oral cavity and digestive tract.

 

4. Science: Gut bacteria is expected to become a new helper for cancer treatment

The number of microorganisms in the human body is ten times more than that of cells. These microorganisms play a huge role: they maintain human health, regulate the immune system, and maintain the digestive system “vigorously”. Now, two articles in the journal Science point out that these microorganisms can also help treat diseases.

These studies use mice as the research object. The results show that intestinal bacteria help enhance the efficacy of the three anti-cancer therapies. In each case, when certain types of microorganisms are missing in the mice, the effect of the treatment is much reduced. Matthew Redinbo, a structural biologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, said: “Experiments have proved that bacteria play a vital role.” In 2010, Redinbo confirmed through research that a bacterial enzyme can inhibit the toxicity of a class of anticancer drugs. side effects. “These findings give us a deeper understanding of the mammal-microbe symbiosis relationship.”

Lora Hooper, an immunologist at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, believes that because the immune system of cancer patients is greatly weakened, many patients have to use antibiotics to fight infections, and these microorganisms will eventually have an impact on clinical practice. Hooper said: “Antibiotic treatment may have side effects, which has not been fully recognized before.” However, the researchers are cautious about applying the findings in mice to humans. The intestinal bacteria in mice are not the same as those in human intestines. What role the bacteria play in the process of destroying cancer cells is still a mystery.

 

5. Nat Med: Intestinal bacteria “talk” intestinal epithelial cells to promote colorectal cancer

Recently, the international academic journal Nature Medicine published online a latest research progress by German scientists. They discovered an important molecule that may be involved in the development of colorectal cancer, and at the same time proved that the interaction between intestinal bacteria and small intestinal epithelial cells is in the colon. It plays an important role in the development of rectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer, also known as colorectal cancer, is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancies. In recent years, the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in our country have been on the rise, and it has become a serious threat to human life. Colorectal cancer is a multi-stage, multi-step pathological process, which is related to the activation of multiple oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. However, so far, people have not fully understood the true cause and regulation mechanism of this disease.

Studies have shown that the activation of inflammation-related signal pathways in small intestinal epithelial cells can promote the occurrence of colorectal cancer. In addition, studies have also found that a molecule called calcineurin is increased in colorectal cancer cells. This molecule is a phosphatase necessary for activation of the NFAT transcription factor family. However, whether calcineurin plays an important role in the development of small bowel tumors has not been studied in depth.

 

6. American and French researchers found that intestinal bacteria control the body’s response to anticancer drugs

There are tens of trillions of bacteria in the human intestines, which can affect body weight and digestion ability, and resist the risk of infection and autoimmune diseases. Researchers in the United States and France have recently discovered that the intestinal flora can also control the body’s response to cancer treatment drugs.

Researchers from the Pasteur Institute in France and other institutions reported in the American journal Science that cyclophosphamide, a drug commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, can destroy the intestinal mucus layer and allow intestinal bacteria to enter the circulatory system, some of which reach the spleen and Bacteria in the lymph nodes can promote the formation of immune cells, which attack cancer cells. But when the researchers used antibiotics to kill the intestinal bacteria of the experimental mice, the ability of cyclophosphamide to indirectly promote immune cells would be greatly reduced.

Another study by the National Cancer Institute published in the same period of “Science” showed that researchers selected cancer mice that were undergoing chemotherapy and had a survival rate of 70%, and used antibiotics to kill their intestinal bacteria. As a result, the chemotherapeutic drugs ingested by these experimental mice no longer worked, and their survival rate dropped to 20% after two months.

 

7. PLOS ONE: Gut bacteria may help inhibit cancer

Now scientists have discovered that many types of intestinal bacteria are special factors that promote or inhibit obesity and other diseases. Recently, researchers from the University of California Los Angeles (University of California Los Angeles) have discovered through research that intestinal bacteria The group may be used to reduce the risk of certain cancers. Related research is published in the international journal PLoS ONE. The relevant research results show that the anti-inflammatory healthy and beneficial intestinal flora may slow or block certain types of cancer. happened.

Researcher Robert Schiestl said that clinicians often analyze the levels and types of intestinal bacteria in the body to reduce the risk of cancer, and then doctors will prescribe some probiotics to replace or enhance the anti-inflammatory properties of the intestinal bacteria in the body; For millions of years, intestinal bacteria will evolve into beneficial intestinal flora or harmful intestinal flora in the body. Beneficial intestinal bacteria often have anti-inflammatory properties, while harmful bacteria will promote inflammation. Compared to a trillion human cells, the body usually contains 1 billion bacterial cells.

 

8. JCEM: Individuals with high diversity of intestinal flora are not susceptible to breast cancer

Recently, researchers from the National Cancer Institute in the United States indicated through research that if postmenopausal women carry a diverse intestinal flora, their body’s estrogen metabolites may be more beneficial to their health. Related research is published in The international journal Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).

Since the 1970s, scientists have discovered that the intestinal bacteria that make up the intestinal microbiome affect the function of female estrogen. Estrogen is the most primitive sex hormone in the female body; the colonization of intestinal bacteria determines estrogen. Whether it remains in the body or excreted with urine and feces after production, previous studies have shown that the levels of estrogen and its metabolites circulating in the body are directly related to the risk of breast cancer in women after menopause.

Researcher James Goedert said that compared with women with low intestinal flora diversity, women with diverse intestinal flora tend to have higher levels of estrogen metabolites in their bodies. It implies that women with higher levels of estrogen have a lower risk of breast cancer. The researchers then conducted a study on 60 menopausal women recruited and analyzed their urine and fecal samples. These women were between 55 and 69 years old. The researchers took breasts 6 to 8 weeks before the study. X-ray examination showed normal results; after analyzing urine and stool samples, the researchers said that the diversity of the body’s intestinal flora is directly related to the ratio of estrogen fragments, and the latter is an indicator of breast cancer.

 

9. Science: Intestinal microbes actually affect the effect of cancer immunotherapy

Checkpoint inhibitors are new drugs that can wake up the immune system to resist tumors, and have significant effects on cancer treatment. However, some clinical results indicate that these drugs have no effect on some patients. Two recent research articles have explained the underlying mechanism. The authors believe that there are abnormalities in the microbial populations in these patients, and therefore cannot produce a normal immune response.

These two studies are the first to link immune checkpoint inhibitors to the intestinal flora. Under normal circumstances, some receptors on the surface of immune cells can limit their killing of autologous tissues. However, tumor tissue can also activate these receptors, causing specific immune cells to be unable to recognize and kill them. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as ipilimumab can maintain immune cell activity by preventing tumor cells from activating these receptors.

This new research can change the way doctors use medicine. “These two articles prove that microbes can affect the effectiveness of treatment,” said Yasmine Belkaid, an immunologist from the Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at NIH. In the past, researchers often focused on finding mutations in the patient’s genome, and using this to explain why there are individual differences in the therapeutic effects of immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs. These two studies now point out that in addition to the genome, microorganisms may have the same effect.

 

10. Change the intestinal flora to prevent colon cancer

Recently, scientists from the St. Jude Children’s Hospital in the United States discovered that a gene expressed in the immune system plays an important role in determining the aggressiveness of colon cancer. They found that the deletion of this gene called AIM2 can lead to the uncontrolled proliferation of small intestinal cells. At the same time, the researchers also found that AIM2 can affect the intestinal flora. Increasing the number of “good” bacteria in the intestine may be useful for preventing colon cancer. Significance. Recently, the relevant research results of this study were published in the international academic journal cell. These findings will play an important role in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer.

Many studies have proven that AIM2 gene mutations are more common in colon cancer patients, but people have only known that AIM2 plays an important role in the immune system. It can sense bacterial and viral invasion and help the immune system fight bacterial and viral infections. AIM2 is in tumors. The mechanism that is happening has not been well understood.

In this study, the researchers used the compound to treat mice to simulate the occurrence of colon cancer. During this process, they found that the functional activity of AIM2 decreased significantly, which was also supported by the results of colon cancer patients. They also found that the use of genetic methods to reduce AIM2 function, combined with compound treatment, will produce more intestinal tumors. The research results of the researchers also found that in addition to its immunological functions, AIM2 can also inhibit the abnormal expansion of the small intestinal stem cell population. When AIM2 malfunctions, its inhibitory effect on the abnormal proliferation of small intestinal stem cells will be lifted.

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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