“Eating meat often” is closely related to 25 diseases
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“Eating meat often” is closely related to 25 diseases
“Eating meat often” is closely related to 25 diseases. A study of 470,000 people found that “eating meat often” is closely related to 25 diseases.
Red meat refers to the unprocessed muscle part of mammals (such as beef, pork, mutton), and processed meat refers to meat that has been salted, cured, fermented, smoked, or other processes to increase flavor or improve freshness.
Red meat refers to the unprocessed muscle part of mammals (such as beef, pork, mutton), and processed meat refers to meat that has been salted, cured, fermented, smoked, or other processes to increase flavor or improve freshness. Most processed meat includes pork, beef, poultry, animal offal, and meat by-products (such as animal blood).
01 A study of 470,000 people found that “eating meat often” is closely related to 25 diseases
Recently, a study published in BMC Medicine by researchers from Oxford University and other researchers found for the first time that a higher total intake of unprocessed red meat and processed meat is associated with a high risk of 25 diseases (except cancer), such as ischemia. Heart disease (IHD), pneumonia, diverticulosis, colon polyps, diabetes, hemorrhagic stroke.
Keren Papier et al. Meat consumption and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in 475,000 men and women in the UK Biobank study. BMC Medicine.DOI: 10.1186 / s12916-021-01922-9
Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of death in Europe and is greatly affected by diet. On April 22, 2019, a large cohort study published in the top international cardiovascular journal circulation found that there is a positive correlation between the total amount of red meat and processed meat and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). For every increase of 100 g/day, the risk of disease increases by 19%.
Is it okay to consume more poultry meat?
Research suggests that higher intake of poultry meat is associated with higher risks of gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastritis and duodenitis, diverticulosis, gallbladder disease and diabetes. Researchers believe that: Poultry meat and gastritis are related mainly because of the breeding of helicobacter pylori due to improper processing or cooking of poultry meat, and there is also an association between poultry meat and diabetes, which can be explained by the high content of heme iron in the meat. Can promote the formation of hydroxyl free radicals, thereby damaging the synthesis of pancreatic β cells and insulin. However, researchers also found that there is no positive relationship between higher intake of unprocessed red meat and poultry meat and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), but a reverse relationship, that is, not eating People with meat are more likely to be anemic.
Ingestion of unprocessed red meat and total processed meat is associated with a variety of disease risks. IHD (HR=1.15 for every additional 70g/day intake), pneumonia (1.31), diverticulosis (1.19), colon polyps (1.10) and diabetes (1.30)
Intake of unprocessed red meat is associated with a variety of disease risks. IHD (HR value is 1.16 for every increase in intake of 50 g/day), pneumonia (1.22), diverticulosis (1.17), colon polyp (1.08) and diabetes (1.21)
After 4 years of follow-up, the researchers found that there was a positive correlation between the total intake of unprocessed red meat and processed meat and hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.53 for every increase in intake of 70g/day).
After further adjustments to BMI, the positive correlation between meat eating and health risks became less clear, and BMI may be a confounding factor for this correlation. It cannot be ignored that BMI is an important risk factor for certain diseases (such as diabetes). People who eat a lot of meat are related to their weight gain. In these people, even if BMI is adjusted, the association between meat and disease risk still exists (BMI, referred to as body mass index, is a commonly used internationally to measure the body’s weight and health. A standard).
Processed meat intake is associated with a variety of disease risks. IHD (HR=1.09 for every additional 20g/day of intake), pneumonia (1.23), diverticulosis (1.11), colon polyp (1.08) and diabetes (1.24)
Poultry meat intake is associated with a variety of disease risks. Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD (HR 1.17 for every additional 30 g/day of intake), gastritis and duodenitis (1. 12), diverticulosis (1.10), gallbladder disease (1.11) and diabetes (1.14)
According to the researcher’s analysis of the population, men who eat unprocessed red meat or processed meat more than 3 times a week are more likely to be white, older, less educated, retired, higher BMI, smoking and drinking alcohol. The intake of fruits and vegetables is less, and the intake of poultry meat is more.
02 Red meat is harmful, yogurt is beneficial
Non-HDL cholesterol is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease risk and can predict the progression of atherosclerosis. It was found on circulation that the intake of red meat and processed meat was associated with plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Compared with the 25% of participants who had the lowest intake of red meat and processed meat, the highest intake was found The non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 25% of the population is higher than 0.19 mmol/l, and the systolic blood pressure is higher than 3.3 mm Hg.
Is there any way to offset the risk of IHD?
Researchers believe that there is an inverse relationship between the intake of yogurt, cheese, and eggs and the risk of IHD. That is to say, compared with red meat and processed meat, the risk of IHD is significantly reduced by consuming fish, yogurt, cheese, and eggs (the risk of IHD is reduced by 15% to 24% by eating 100 kcal of alternative foods per day) .
The table shows the substitution of 100 kcal/day of red meat and processed meat with other animal foods of 100 kcal/day
Key TJ et al. Consumption of meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk of ischemic heart disease. Circulation. doi:https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.118.038813.
03 Red meat causes cancer?
Many people still want to know if there is a connection between meat and cancer? In fact, the International Agency for Research on Cancer under the World Health Organization has classified processed meat products as a category one carcinogen, and red meat as a category two carcinogen, and may be carcinogenic to humans (the so-called category one carcinogen is a clear Substances that are carcinogenic to the human body, and 2A carcinogens represented by red meat refer to substances that are likely to cause cancer).
Subsequently, a study published in the “International Journal of Epidemiology” in October 2020 stated that the intake of more red meat and processed meat may be related to the risk of colorectal cancer. In a prospective study of 474,996 participants from the United Kingdom, researchers investigated the relationship between meat intake and the risk of common cancers. The intake of red meat and processed meat was positively correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Specifically, every 70 g/day increase in red meat and processed meat intake is associated with a 32% increase in the risk of colorectal cancer and a 40% increase in the risk of colon cancer.
The intake of red meat and processed meat is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (an increase of 70g HR per day is 1.32), but it has nothing to do with colorectal cancer.
Anika Knuppel et al. Meat intake and cancer risk: prospective analyses in UK Biobank. International Journal of Epidemiology. DOI: 10.1093 / ije / dyaa142
The researchers explained this: the blood iron in red meat can catalyze the conversion of endogenous N-nitroso groups of amines and amides into N-nitroso compounds, and these compounds will mutate in the gastrointestinal mucosa. When meat is processed and cooked, it can also form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines, thereby increasing the risk of colorectal cancer.
During an average follow-up of 6.9 years, 28,955 participants were diagnosed with malignant tumors. The researchers observed: cancer patients are generally older, less physical exercise, higher BMI, early retirement and unhealthy lifestyle habits; Men also eat more meat and wine than women, while fruits and vegetables, grains, cheese, and fish eat very little.
Kurt Streff, an official of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, once stated in a public statement that for healthy individuals, the risk of colon cancer from eating ordinary processed meat products is small, but this risk will Increase with the increase in consumption.
04 Eat “healthy”
Red meat is rich in various nutrients needed by the human body, such as vitamin B1/B2, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, zinc and other trace elements and minerals. It is an important source of nutrition for many people, especially iron. According to the recommendations of some countries’s “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents”, adults eat about 40 to 75 grams of poultry meat a day. For people who usually eat red meat, the intake should be appropriately reduced; but for ordinary people, it is not that all red meat can not be eaten, and moderate eating can take in nutrients.
Since red meat is still a good source of nutrition, we must eat “healthy” even more. It is recommended that the cooking methods of red meat are light and less oil-shabu, boil, braise, stew, and less oil and stir-fry. Avoid high-temperature cooking methods such as frying and barbecue, which will easily destroy the original nutrients in the meat and may also produce Carcinogen.
(source:internet, reference only)
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