July 1, 2022

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Tertiary oligodendroglioma: Diagnosis Survival rate and Treatments

 

 

Tertiary oligodendroglioma: Diagnosis Survival rate and Treatments. If possible, the first treatment for oligodendroglioma is surgery.

The purpose of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the type of tumor, and to remove as much of the tumor as possible without causing more symptoms.

Treatment after surgery may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or clinical trials.

Grade III oligodendroglioma is malignant (cancerous). This means that they are fast-growing tumors. They are called anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Who is diagnosed with oligodendroglioma? Oligodendrocyte tumors often occur between 35 and 44 years old, but they can occur at any age.

Grade III oligodendroglioma is a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. This means it starts in the brain or spinal cord. In order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, if possible, a piece of tumor tissue will be removed during the operation. Then, the neuropathologist should examine the tumor tissue.


How does oligodendroglioma appear on MRI?

Oligodendrocyte tumors usually appear as a single tumor with well-defined borders. Tumors may enhance contrast and are most common in anaplastic oligodendroglioma. There is some swelling around the oligodendroglioma.

 


What causes oligodendroglioma?

Cancer is a genetic disease-that is, cancer is caused by certain genetic changes that control the way our cells function. Genes may be mutated (altered) in many types of cancer, thereby increasing the growth and spread of cancer cells.
The cause of most oligodendrogliomas is unknown. Exposure to radiation and certain genetic changes that can be inherited through the family are associated with a higher likelihood of developing oligodendroglioma.

At present, the etiology of most oligodendrogliomas is unclear, and the possible causes include the following three:

1. Genetic factors: Many cancers are genetic diseases, and the occurrence of oligodendroglioma does not exclude genetic factors.

2. Genetic changes: Genes may be mutated or changed in many types of cancer, thereby increasing the growth or spread of cancer cells.

3. Exposure to radiation and certain genetic changes that can be inherited through the family are more likely to develop oligodendroglioma.

 


How does oligodendroglioma form?

Oligodendrocytes are usually found in the white matter and the outer layer of the brain (called the cortex), but can form anywhere in the central nervous system. These tumors are called oligodendrogliomas because these cells are similar to oligodendrocytes, which are brain cells that support and isolate nerve fibers in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes can spread to other areas of the central nervous system through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but it is not common. Oligodendrocyte tumors rarely spread outside the central nervous system to other organs.

 

How long is the survival period of grade 3 oligodendroglioma?

The relative 5-year survival rate of oligodendroglioma is 74.1%, but many factors are known to affect the prognosis. This includes the grade and type of tumor, the characteristics of the cancer, the age and health of the person at the time of diagnosis, and their response to treatment.

 

Treatment options for grade 3 oligodendroglioma

If possible, the first treatment for oligodendroglioma is surgery. The purpose of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the type of tumor, and to remove as much of the tumor as possible without causing more symptoms. Treatment after surgery may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or clinical trials.

For grade 3 oligodendroglioma, new chemotherapy can also be used, including clinical trials of targeted therapies or immunotherapy drugs, and can be used as a treatment option. Treatment is determined by the patient’s medical team based on the patient’s age, residual tumor after surgery, tumor type and tumor location.

Generally speaking, tertiary gliomas are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis, especially tumors without IDH mutations. Most of the grade 3 gliomas are derived from grade 2. If there are IDH mutations on the genetic test, this is basically the case, and it is found that many of the grade 3 gliomas have grade 2 cells. This may be Since the symptoms are not obvious in the low grade, the patient ignores the problem, which causes the tumor to become malignant unknowingly, so when the third grade glioma is found, a large part of this part is the second grade glioma cells.

The average survival time of grade 3 gliomas without mutations is 2-3 years, the average survival time of grade 3 gliomas with IDH mutations is 3-5 years, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with mutations and 1p19q deletion have the average survival The period is 4-9 years. If patients with IDH mutations are found, do not give up treatment easily.

Scientific and active treatment methods, choosing experienced surgical experts to perform the first surgical resection, and choosing surgical hospitals with sophisticated surgical equipment and multiple clinical success cases will also make the treatment effect twice the result with half the effort.

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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