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What causes thyroid cancer and how to prevent it?
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What causes thyroid cancer and how to prevent it? If you want to prevent thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases, you must do these points in your daily life.
In the past 10 years, the worldwide incidence of thyroid cancer has been rising rapidly year by year, with the incidence rate increasing at a rate of 6% each year.
Among them, the incidence of thyroid cancer in women is 8.28 per 100,000, which is three times that of men.
Thyroid cancer has now become one of the highest-risk cancers among women in big cities.
Cancer does not arise for no reason, and so is thyroid cancer! Let’s take a look at the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer first to know if it has been repaired.
1. Understand the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer:
1) Oncogenes and growth factors: Medical evidence shows that tumors in animals and humans are related to mutations and deletions of proto-oncogene sequences.
2) Ionizing radiation: Recent studies have shown that ionizing radiation received by the head and neck is one of the important carcinogenic causes of the thyroid.
3) Genetic factors: Autosomal dominant genetic disease in human genetic DNA is an important factor for many genetic diseases. Medullary thyroid cancer is inherited by autosomal dominant genetic disease.
2. What are the early symptoms of thyroid cancer?
1) Neck mass
With the increase of the physical examination population, more and more thyroid cancers are found through thyroid palpation and ultrasound examination. That is, asymptomatic thyroid cancer.
There are also some patients who see a doctor because they find a neck mass that moves with swallowing. Some patients may have difficulty swallowing and neck pressure.
It can compress the trachea, causing difficulty breathing, hoarse voice, obstruction when swallowing, or swelling of nearby lymph nodes.
2) Palpable thyroid nodules and lymphadenopathy
Papillary carcinoma grows the slowest. In addition to touching thyroid nodules and local lymph node enlargement, other symptoms are very few.
When the tumor is small and located in the deep part of the thyroid, it is generally difficult to find. Follicular cell carcinoma is a nodular goiter, which is more common as a single nodule, hard as a stone, and can involve the whole leaf thyroid.
3) Undifferentiated cancer manifests as enlarged and painful thyroid mass
Erosion to adjacent tissues can cause hoarseness, respiratory distress and difficulty swallowing. The lumps are usually tender, hard as stone, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. Local lymph nodes are swollen and can also be metastasized. Generally progress is faster.
Therefore, if you find that your neck has a mass that moves with swallowing, or a fixed neck mass larger than 2 cm, you need to go to the hospital in time.
3. Symptoms of thyroid cancer metastasis:
1) Cancer cells enter the nearby normal thyroid tissue through interstitial spaces, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
2) Cancer cells metastasize to the internal jugular vein and the anterior larynx and pretracheal lymph nodes through the deep part of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The disease on the affected side can also be transferred to the mediastinal lymph nodes, contralateral lymph nodes or systemic lymph nodes. whole body.
4. Four types of people should be alert to thyroid cancer:
The first is women! Especially young and middle-aged women, the peak age of onset is 20-40 years old, and they are highly “favored” by thyroid cancer;
The second is a history of head and neck radiation or exposure to radiation pollution and a history of whole body radiotherapy in childhood;
The third is those with family history of inherited diseases, especially thyroid cancer;
The fourth is people who have had thyroid diseases, thyroid cancer and other diseases in the past. These four types of people should actively do a good job of thyroid screening, and achieve early diagnosis and treatment.
5. Will thyroid nodules become thyroid cancer?
Thyroid nodules are divided into benign and malignant. Generally speaking, most thyroid nodules are benign, but even benign nodules may become cancerous in the process of change.
If the thyroid nodules become larger, they will also compress other organs, such as trachea, esophagus, etc. Patients with nodules should be careful when touching the lumps.
If they find that there are nodules in the front neck, and the nodules have increased significantly in a short period of time, the texture is hard, the borders are blurry, and symptoms such as dysphagia and hoarseness appear. High alert is thyroid cancer.
6. How to prevent thyroid cancer?
If you want to prevent thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases, you must do these points in your daily life.
First, you must avoid long-term ionizing radiation in the neck and neck.
Second, regular physical examination is very important, especially for people at high risk of thyroid cancer.
Third, Once the abnormal symptoms of the thyroid are found, it is necessary to go to the hospital for examination.
Early diagnosis and treatment are very important for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Early detection can be completely cured.
What causes thyroid cancer and how to prevent it?
(source:internet, reference only)