July 7, 2022

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Cancer Discovery: The most detailed gastric cancer single cell map

Cancer Discovery: The largest and most detailed gastric cancer single cell map to date.



Cancer Discovery: The largest and most detailed gastric cancer single cell map to date.

According to the latest global cancer burden data released by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO IARC) in 2020, gastric cancer is currently the fifth most common type of cancer in the world and the fourth most likely to die. In 2020, the number of new cases of gastric cancer in the world was 1.089 million, and the number of deaths was 768,000. 

Recently, Researchers from Duke – School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and the Singapore Science and Technology Bureau Genome Institute  and other institutions in Cancer Discovery journal published a report entitled: Single-Atlas of the Cell Lineage States, tumor microenvironment and subtypespecific expression The gastric Cancer Programs in the research paper.

The study assembled the world’s largest and highest-resolution single-cell atlas (more than 200,000 cells) of gastric cancer so far . The atlas provides new information on how gastric cancer progresses and how different gastric cancer patients’ tumors differ from each other at the single-cell level. opinion. These findings also identified the molecular pathways that drive the growth and spread of gastric cancer to other organs, laying the foundation for better treatment of gastric cancer.

The largest and most detailed gastric cancer single cell map to date.

Stomach cancer is not common in Western countries, but it is very common in Asia. It has both genetic factors and lifestyle factors . Therefore, research on high-risk groups of gastric cancer in Asia will help to develop targeted treatments for gastric cancer.

It is well known that patients with gastric cancer are difficult to treat because we lack a clear understanding of the types of tumor cells that make up gastric cancer. With the help of cutting-edge technologies such as precision oncology and single-cell sequencing, it is possible to analyze tumor cells of cancer patients with unprecedented depth and resolution, and tailor treatment plans for cancer patients, thereby improving diagnosis and treatment methods.

The research team obtained 46 tumor samples from 31 gastric cancer patients at different stages, and then performed single-cell sequencing analysis, analyzed more than 200,000 independent single cells, and evaluated the gene expression patterns of these cells. So as to provide new insights for the development of gastric cancer, and it is also expected to discover new treatment targets for gastric cancer.

The research team found 34 different cell types in these gastric cancer tumors, some of which have not been detected in gastric tumors before. Tumors from different gastric cancer patients show different cellular composition, which helps explain why similar treatments produce very different results.

Research results show that some gastric cancer tumors contain immune cells, especially B cells that control antibody production . This shows that cancer immunotherapy is a treatment method that uses the body’s own immune system to fight cancer and can be applied to the treatment of gastric cancer. The study also found for the first time the role of fibroblasts in driving gastric cancer, which suggests that targeting fibroblasts can be used as a potential treatment approach for gastric cancer.

The largest and most detailed gastric cancer single cell map to date.

The research team said that by creating the first in-depth map of gastric cancer cell types, this work used the power of single-cell sequencing very effectively, discovered the weakness of gastric cancer tumor cells, and illuminated the path for new therapies and further research of gastric cancer.

On the basis of this work, the research team is currently investigating how the cell population identified in the study changes over time during the development of early gastric cancer and drug treatment. These findings will help early gastric cancer screening and drugs Development.

In addition, many of the characteristics identified in the study may be applicable to other cancer types, and the research team plans to collaborate with researchers studying other cancers to pool data and identify cell populations that cause multiple cancers.

Paper link:
https://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2021/10/11/2159-8290.CD-21-0683

(source:internet, reference only)


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