December 4, 2022

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Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cells

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cells



 

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cells.

Nature: Universal cancer vaccine is coming, activates T cells and NK cells at the same time, and accelerates the elimination of cancer cells

With the development of biology and medicine, people’s understanding of cancer and their own immune system has deepened, and scientists have also realized that the immune system is the most lethal weapon against cancer.

In recent years, the rise of cancer immunotherapy has also led more and more scientific research teams to focus on cancer vaccines.

 

Notably, most cancer vaccines target specific antigens expressed by cancer cells, helping the immune system to recognize and attack these mutated cells.

However, the nature and immunogenicity (ability to elicit an immune response) of these antigens are unique to each individual, and cancer cells often achieve immune evasion by mutating and altering antigen presentation, limiting generic cancer Vaccine development.

 

On May 25, 2022, a research team from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in the United States published a research paper entitled: A vaccine targeting resistant tumours by dual T cell plus NK cell attack in the top international academic journal Nature .

 

The study developed a novel cancer vaccine that overcomes individual differences in cancer immunity by targeting MICA / MICB stress molecules to activate two major types of immune cells – T cells and NK cells , causing tumor antigen-independent coordinated all-out attack .

Preliminary results demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the cancer vaccine in mice and rhesus monkeys.

 

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cells

 

 

Cancer Vaccines is a therapeutic and preventive immunotherapy strategy that activates the human immune system by targeting tumor cell-associated antigens and exerts specific anti-tumor effects.

 

Currently, some of the cancer vaccines we know are preventive vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, while the clinical trials of most therapeutic cancer vaccines have not been satisfactory.

A large part of this is due to the diversity of cancer cell antigens and tumor immune escape mechanisms.

 

If a universal therapeutic cancer vaccine can be developed, it will profoundly change the current cancer treatment landscape.

 

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cellsKai Wucherpfennig

 

In this latest study, Kai Wucherpfennig’s team proposes a new design for a cancer vaccine that targets two surface proteins, MICA and MICB , which activate ligands for T cells and NK cells, accelerating the immune system’s destruction of tumors .

 

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cellsNewly designed cancer vaccine can increase the expression of MICA/B on the surface of tumor cells

 

MICA/MICB is a cellular stress molecule with little expression in normal tissues, but its expression is significantly up-regulated in various tumor cells. Studies have shown that MICA/MICB can bind to the NKG2D receptor on the surface of T cells and NK cells and be recognized by effector cells, mediating the killing effect on tumor cells.

 

However, the cunning and multi-pointed tumor cells are not willing to give up, they cleavage MICA/MICB through proteolysis, reducing the possibility of their activation of immune cells, thereby evading immune attack.

But this newly designed cancer vaccine can prevent this cleavage effect of tumor cells and increase the level of MICA/MICB protein on the tumor surface.

 

Not only that, this process can also activate dendritic cells to present tumor antigens to T cells, enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells, and ultimately lead to the coordinated double attack of T cells and NK cells.

 

Newly designed cancer vaccine activates T cells and NK cells, triggering a coordinated dual attack

 

 

In order to verify the efficacy and safety of this cancer vaccine, the research team conducted preliminary tests in mouse and rhesus monkey models, and the results showed that this vaccine can improve the immune protection against common tumors and drug-resistant tumors, and there is no obvious side effects.

 

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cellsEfficacy and safety of newly designed cancer vaccines in mouse and rhesus monkey models

 

 

In conclusion, this study demonstrates a novel cancer vaccine that blocks tumor cell cleavage of MICA/MICB response molecules, activates T cells and NK cells, and elicits a coordinated all-out attack independent of tumor antigens with favorable efficacy against drug-resistant tumors. the therapeutic effect.

 


Research Pattern Diagram

 

 

Although further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the potential of this cancer vaccine in humans, it is still a major advance in therapeutic cancer vaccines, and it is hoped that cancer vaccines following this design idea can bring more benefits to humans in the future , bringing new hope to the majority of cancer patients.

 

 

 

 

Reference :
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04772-4

Universal cancer vaccine accelerates the elimination of cancer cells

(source:internet, reference only)


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