August 17, 2022

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American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy

American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy



 

American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) released the first-level tumor fighting plan for the next 10 years, called “2030 Blueprint for Cancer Prevention and Mortality Reduction”, and related articles were published in the journal CA, the world’s highest impact factor!

 

American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy

 

 

In 80 years, the cancer death rate dropped by 26%!

The article analyzes in detail the changes and causes of cancer mortality in the United States during the 80 years from 1930 to 2010, and plans the direction for future work to reduce cancer mortality.

 

 

The graph above shows cancer death rates for men and women in the United States over the 80 years from 1930 to 2015. It can be seen that the year with the highest cancer death rate in the United States was 1991, and the total death rate in this year was 215.1/100,000. By 2015, the total cancer death rate in the United States had dropped to 158.7/100,000, a decrease of 26%!

 

American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy

 

 

The country saw a decline in breast cancer mortality from 1988-90 to 2013-15. Data source: National Center for Health Statistics.

 

American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy

 

 

National decline in colorectal cancer mortality from 1980-82 to 2013-15. Data source: National Center for Health Statistics.

 

 

American Cancer Society: Three major factors in the decline in mortality!

  • Cancer is first and foremost prevention. Smoking or not has a great impact on a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. Therefore, smoking cessation is needed to reduce cancer mortality.

  • The second is screening. The advent of screening has greatly affected the prognosis of colon and cervical cancer. Although breast and prostate cancer screening is still controversial to varying degrees, there are still contributions.

  • Improvements in surgical procedures and reductions in complications have resulted in lower operative mortality, advances in radiotherapy have reduced patient mortality, and advances in systemic therapy for hematologic and lymphatic tumors have also reduced mortality.

 

 

 

 

Top 10 anti-cancer strategies for the next decade!

 

1. Keep away from 11 pathogens

Some viral infections (such as HPV, HIV, and hepatitis B virus) also increase the risk of cancer.

Currently, a total of 11 pathogens have been identified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), including:

  • 1 type of bacteria: Helicobacter pylori;

  • 7 kinds of viruses: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papilloma virus (HPV), EB virus, human immunodeficiency virus, etc.

  • 3 kinds of parasites: Thai liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke), Schistosoma aegypti.

     

 

For infections that are common in general life, we recommend:

▍ ① Cervical cancer – HPV human papilloma virus

Routes: sexual transmission, close contact, indirect contact (clothes, daily necessities, utensils, etc. of infected persons), nosocomial infection, mother-to-child transmission.

Prevention: vaccinate against HPV, pay attention to personal hygiene, and pay attention to sexual life hygiene. Women who have had sex should be screened once a year.

Reminder: There are no obvious symptoms in the early stage of HPV infection. After cervical lesions are caused, there may be contact bleeding during sexual life, increased vaginal discharge with peculiar smell, prolonged menstrual period, increased menstrual flow, etc., and you should seek medical treatment in time.

▍ ② Gastric cancer – Helicobacter pylori

Routes: oral saliva, feces, food contact mouth

Prevention: Wash hands before meals, try not to feed food, especially do not feed young children by mouth. It can be divided into meal system or public chopsticks, and the tableware is often disinfected.

Reminder: If you have bad breath, pantothenic acid, stomach pain and other symptoms, you should do gastroscopy and hp infection screening.

▍ ③ Liver cancer – hepatitis B and C viruses, liver flukes

Routes: blood transmission, mother-to-child transmission, sexual transmission, raw freshwater fish and shrimp, etc.

Prevention: vaccinate against hepatitis B and C; go to regular medical institutions when donating blood or transfusion; do pre-marital and pregnancy tests; eat less raw freshwater fish and shrimp.

Reminder: patients with chronic hepatitis B and C may have symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite, indigestion, etc., which should not be taken lightly.

▍ ④ Nasopharyngeal carcinoma – EB virus

Route: saliva transmission

Prevention: Get EB vaccine, pay attention to avoid mouth-to-mouth transmission and sneeze droplet transmission.

 

 

 

2. Sun protection reduces skin cancer risk

  

Sun exposure is the biggest risk factor for skin cancer. Almost 86% of melanoma skin cancers and 90% of non-melanoma skin cancers (including basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with solar UV radiation. The most effective way to limit your skin cancer risk is to limit your sun exposure.

Sun exposure is a great way to supplement vitamin D, but we reject it!

Suggest:

▍① Avoid direct sunlight at noon ;

▍② Use sunscreen properly;

▍③ Wear a wide-brimmed sun hat and sunglasses;

▍④ Wear sun protection clothing;

 

 

3. Reduce unnecessary medical radiation

 

IARC believes that all ionizing radiation is carcinogenic. 2006 data show that 48% of ionizing radiation comes from medical equipment (eg CT), including exposure during diagnosis and treatment.

Medical ionizing radiation is associated with a variety of cancers, with CT being the greatest risk. A 40-year-old man and woman who underwent a single CT coronary angiography had a lifetime risk of cancer of approximately 1/600 and 1/270, respectively, but the risk from head CT was much smaller (1/11080 and 1/11080, respectively). 1/8100).

However, older adults are at lower risk for these tests.

 

 

4. Reduction of radiation from indoor building materials

Radon pollution, formaldehyde pollution, benzene pollution, etc. will affect the health of the body. Among them, radon pollution has been confirmed by the World Health Organization as the second most common lung cancer substance after tobacco. The National Research Council estimates that 3% to 4% of lung cancer deaths in the United States could be prevented by reducing indoor radon exposure.

▍① Radon: A radioactive gas that exists widely in nature. Building materials are the largest source of indoor radon, such as slag bricks and natural stone used in renovations, as well as ceramic products such as tiles and sanitary ware.

▍② Formaldehyde: It mainly comes from man-made panels used in decoration and furniture, such as composite floors, large core boards, MDF, and white latex and fabric products used in decoration.

▍③ Benzene: mainly from solvent-based wood varnishes, paints, solvent-based adhesives and cleaners.

Suggest:

Before renovating a new home, it is recommended to ask a professional testing agency to conduct an indoor environmental inspection. According to the test results, you can decide whether you can move in. If the pollution is not very serious, it is best to ventilate for about 6 months before moving in. Ventilation at home can reduce indoor concentrations of radon and formaldehyde.

The World Health Organization recommends that the radon concentration in the living room should be <2.7pCi/L. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that indoor radon concentrations of ≥4.0 pCi/L exceed the standard.

 

 

5.Quitting smoking is a top priority!

Tobacco control is the “top priority” for cancer prevention! Since 1991, cancer deaths in the United States have decreased by 26 percent, with more than half of that attributable to declining smoking rates.

Suggest:

▍① Smoking cessation is beneficial to people of all ages.

▍② Smoking shortens life expectancy by more than ten years.

▍③ If you quit smoking before the age of 40, you can regain 9 years of life.

 

 

6. Limit alcohol, any drinking is harmful

Alcohol was first classified as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1987. Excessive alcohol consumption can have many adverse effects on the body and has been linked to at least seven types of cancer (British scientific journal Addiction).

The American Cancer Society recommends drinking no more than one drink a day for women and two for men. The “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” (2016) recommends that men drink no more than 25 grams of alcohol a day, and women no more than 15 grams, otherwise it is excessive drinking.

What is the concept of 25 grams of alcohol? Roughly convert, remember:

▍Liquor: no more than 1 tael each time

▍Beer: no more than one bottle at a time

▍Red wine: limit to about one red wine glass at a time

Evidence suggests that drinking even small amounts of alcohol increases the risk of certain cancers, including breast cancer. Therefore, in order to prevent cancer, alcohol consumption is not recommended.

 

 

7. Weight control

Obesity not only increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, bone and joint disease, but also cancer. More than 20 different types of cancer are associated with obesity, most notably rectal, endometrial, and esophageal adenocarcinomas.

 

 

8. Healthy diet

Bacon, ham, sausage, and hot dogs are all listed by the World Health Organization as group 1 carcinogens. Eating processed meat increases colorectal cancer risk by 18 percent. 

Red meat can also shorten a person’s lifespan and increase the risk of colon cancer, especially when the meat is grilled or grilled, or even slightly burned. 

While the risk of cancer from red meat is nowhere near as high as the risk of smoking, reducing your intake of red meat and limiting your consumption of processed meat will only lower your risk of cancer.

 

Eating a variety of foods every day—fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy—consume large amounts of food each day. It also means watching your fat, fat, sodium and sugar intake. 

The more you can avoid gaining weight, the better. Maintaining a healthy height and weight throughout your life can reduce your risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Start healthy eating today!

 

 

9. Sports, sports, sports

Not only does physical activity help you lose weight or stay in shape, but it also has a preventive effect on cancer. Exercise appears to lower hormone levels, improve our immune system function, lower insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels, and also lower body fat.

 

Studies have shown that people who get at least 30-60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day have a reduced risk of cancer, especially breast and colon cancer. In addition, rates of several other cancers decreased, including prostate, lung and endometrial cancers.

 

To prevent cancer, the U.S. exercise guidelines recommend:

▌Adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (such as brisk walking) per week;

▌ or 75 minutes of high-intensity exercise (such as jogging);

▌ or an equivalent combination of the two exercises.

 

 

10. Undergo cancer screening

For most cancers, survival is greater if detected and treated early. The following cancer screenings should be performed regularly:

Breast cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, colorectal cancer screening, hepatitis C virus screening, HIV screening, lung cancer screening, obesity, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.3322/caac.21460

American Cancer Society releases: 2030 Cancer Prevention Strategy

(source:internet, reference only)


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