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How to find gallbladder cancer early and how to treat it?
How to find gallbladder cancer early and how to treat it? Gallbladder carcinoma is a very aggressive malignant tumor, which has the characteristics of early lymph node metastasis, direct infiltration of liver tissue, and prone to abdominal implantation and blood metastasis.
The mortality rate is very high, the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%, and the average survival period is 5 to 8 months. The long-term curative effect is worse than that of liver cancer and pancreatic cancer. It is a veritable cancer “king of kings”.
01 Who is susceptible to gallbladder cancer?
Gallbladder cancer is more common in middle-aged and elderly people. There are more women than men. The following people are prone to gallbladder cancer:
- Patients with gallbladder stones, long-term stimulation of the stones induces gallbladder cancer. The larger the stones (>3cm), the more likely they are
- Patients with gallbladder polyps, if the diameter of the gallbladder polyps is greater than 1 cm, about 25% will become cancerous;
- Patients with congenital bile duct dysplasia, such as congenital bile duct dilation, abnormal confluence of bile duct and pancreatic duct;
- Patients with calcification and hardening of the gallbladder wall;
- People with family history.
In short, middle-aged and elderly people over 60 years old, suffering from full-filled gallstones, or gallbladder polyps of more than 1 cm or porcelain gallbladder, emphasize regular and close review, and even prevent gallbladder removal.
02 How to find gallbladder cancer early?
In the early stage of gallbladder cancer, there are generally no symptoms, or only some atypical abdominal pain, bloating, anorexia, and anorexia. When there is significant weight loss, jaundice, and pain, most of the gallbladder cancer is in the advanced stage, and the opportunity for surgery is lost. Therefore, the focus of gallbladder cancer is prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment.
Routine physical examination and regular follow-up can detect gallbladder lesions in time and screen out high-risk gallbladder cancer patients. Ultrasonography can effectively find most gallbladder lesions, such as gallbladder stones, gallbladder polyps, gallbladder adenomyosis, cholecystitis, etc., and blood tests for tumor markers. Among them, elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA199 are closely related to gallbladder cancer.
For symptomatic gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps larger than 1cm in diameter, cholecystectomy is required. Sometimes “accidental gallbladder cancer” is found during the operation. At this time, the cancer is often early, and the surgical treatment effect is very good. The 5-year survival rate after the operation is 99%. the above.
03How is cholangiocarcinoma treated?
Early gallbladder cancer, such as carcinoma in situ and T1a stage gallbladder cancer, is intramucosal or submucosal gallbladder cancer, and a simple cholecystectomy can achieve a radical cure.
For T1b stage gallbladder cancer, that is, gallbladder cancer that has reached the muscle layer, it may invade the tissues in the liver and have lymph node metastasis. At this time, it is necessary to perform adjacent liver resection and lymphatic dissection. Only in this way can we achieve a relatively radical cure effect.
Extended radical surgery for stage Ⅱ and stage Ⅲ gallbladder cancer is to expand the scope of liver resection and lymph node dissection; stage Ⅳ gallbladder cancer often cannot be cured by surgery. If tumor reduction surgery is performed, combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, relatively better results will be obtained. of.
(source:internet, reference only)