October 3, 2022

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What are other zoonotic diseases besides monkeypox?



 

What are other zoonotic diseases besides monkeypox?

 

On May 29, 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a disease information circular, assessing the global public health risk of monkeypox as moderate.

 

WHO said in the notification that between May 13 and 26, 23 non-monkeypox-endemic countries and regions have reported 257 confirmed cases of monkeypox to WHO, and about 120 suspected cases,  but fatalities have not yet been reported.

Monkeypox is a zoonoses , which has accounted for a large proportion of all newly discovered infectious diseases and many existing infectious diseases in recent years, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bola virus disease, salmonellosis, etc., and even coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are zoonotic diseases.

 

What are other zoonotic diseases besides monkeypox?

 

 

 

Zoonoses are diseases that are caused by the same pathogen, are epidemiologically related to each other , and are naturally transmitted and infected between animals and humans.

A disease constitutes a zoonotic disease with three characteristics:

  1. Caused by a common source of infection, including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, spirochetes, rickettsia, chlamydia, fungi, protozoa, etc.
  2. In epidemiology, animals are an indispensable link in the occurrence and spread of human diseases, and both animals and humans are susceptible to pathogens.
  3. In terms of transmission routes, pathogens can naturally spread horizontally between humans and animals, mainly by contact infection, which can be direct contact or indirect contact with media.

 


Of the 1,415 human diseases classified by WHO, about 61% are zoonotic. Depending on the pathogen, zoonotic diseases are generally classified into the following 8 categories.

 

What are other zoonotic diseases besides monkeypox?

 

 

 

Classification of zoonotic diseases and some common diseases

 

1. Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria

 

1) Anthrax

Pathogen: Bacillus anthracis

 

2) Tuberculosis

Pathogens: Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprine, Mycobacterium voles

 

3) Brucellosis

Pathogens: Brucella abortus, Brucella malta , Brucella suis, Brucella canis

 

4) Plague (Black Death)

Pathogen: Yersinia pestis

 

5) Meliosis

Pathogen: Burkholderia pseudomallei

 

6) Leprosy

Pathogen: Mycobacterium leprae

 

7) Leptospirosis

Pathogen: Leptospira

 

8) Tularemia

Pathogen: Francisella tularensis (referred to as tularemia)

 

9) Arcobacterial infection

pathogen

 

10) Actinomycosis

Pathogen: Actinomyces bovis

 

11) Bordetillosis

Pathogen: Bordetella bronchiseptica

 

12) Lyme disease

Pathogen: Borrelia burgdorferi

 

13) Campylobacter enteritis

Pathogens: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli

 

14) Campylobacter fetus infection

Pathogen: Campylobacter fetus subsp. venereal disease

 

15) Clostridium difficile infection

Pathogen: Clostridium difficile

 

16) Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections

Pathogen: Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

 

17) Enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection

Pathogen: Escherichia coli (O157:H7)

 

18) Helicobacter infection

Pathogen: Helicobacter Gallinarum, Helicobacter suis

 

19) Vibrio disease

Pathogen: Vibrio parahaemolyticus

 

20) Salmonellosis

Pathogens: Salmonella enterica, Salmonella Bongor

 

21) Rickettsial disease

Pathogens: Anaplasma phagocytophila, Ehrlichia Ewing, Ehrlichia chaffie, Ehrlichia canis, Neorickettsia glandularis

 

22) Pasteurellosis (hemorrhagic sepsis)

Pathogen: Pasteurella septicemia

 


2. Zoonotic diseases caused by viruses


1) Rabies

Pathogen: rabies virus

 

2) Newcastle disease

Pathogen: Paramyxovirus

 

3) Bird flu

Pathogen: Influenza A virus

 

4) Rift Valley Fever

Pathogen: Rift Valley Fever virus

 

5) Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Pathogen: Ebola virus

 

6) Marburg virus hemorrhagic fever

Pathogen: Marburg virus

 

7) Chikungunya fever

Pathogen: Chikungunya virus

 

8) Dengue fever

Pathogen: Dengue virus

 

9) Hantavirus infection

Pathogen: Hantavirus

 

10) Zika fever

Pathogen: Zika virus

 

11) West Nile fever

Pathogen: West Nile virus

 

12) AIDS

Pathogen: HIV

 

13) SARS

Pathogen: SARS virus

 

14) Monkeypox

Pathogen: monkeypox virus

 

 

3. Zoonotic diseases caused by parasites

 

1) Trichinosis

Pathogen: Trichinella

 

2) Visceral Transmigration

Pathogens: Ascaris bellii, Toxocara canis, Ascaris feline, Ascaris suum

 

3) Skin larva migrans

Pathogen: Brazilian hookworm

 

4) Hydatid disease

Pathogen: Echinococcus granulosus

 

5) Cryptococcosis

Pathogen: Cryptococcus neoformans

 

6) Cryptosporidiosis

Pathogen: Cryptosporidium

 

7) Trematodiasis

Pathogen: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola maxima

 

 

 

4. Zoonotic diseases caused by fungi


1) Ringworm

Pathogens: Microsporum, Trichophyton.

 

2) Aspergillosis

Pathogen: Aspergillus

 

3) Blastomycosis

Pathogen: Blastomyces dermatitidis

 

4) Coccidioidomycosis

Pathogens: Coccidioides Posadas, Coccidioides Coccidioides

 

5) Cryptococcosis

Pathogen: Cryptococcus neoformans

 

6) Sporothriosis

Pathogen: Sporothrix schenckii

 

7) Malassezia infection

Pathogen: Malassezia

 

8) Histoplasmosis

Pathogen: Histoplasma capsularis var. capsularis

 

 

 

5. Zoonotic diseases caused by rickettsia

 

1) Q fever

Pathogen: Kirkusella bernarti

 

2) Epidemic typhus

Pathogen: Rickettsia Przewalskii

 

3) Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Pathogen: Rickettsia verticillium

 

4) Queensland tick-borne typhus

Pathogen: Rickettsia australis

 

5) typhus

Pathogen: Rickettsia tsutsugamushi

 

 

 

6. Zoonotic diseases caused by chlamydia


1) Endemic abortion

Pathogen: Chlamydia abortus

 

2) Parrot fever

Pathogen: Chlamydia psittaci

 

3) Chlamydia

Pathogens: Chlamydia feline, Chlamydia trachomatis

 

 

 

7. Zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa


1) Trypanosomiasis

Pathogen: Trypanosoma brucei

 

2) Leishmaniasis

Pathogen: Leishmania

 

3) Sleeping sickness

Pathogen: Trypanosoma brucei

 

4) Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)

Pathogen: Trypanosoma cruzi

 

5) Giardiasis

Pathogen: Giardia lamblia

 

6) Toxocariasis

Pathogens: Toxocara canis, feline ascariasis

 

7) Toxoplasmosis

Pathogen: Toxoplasma gondii

 

8) Tasmaniasis

Pathogen: Colic pouch ciliate

 

 

 

8. Zoonotic diseases caused by non-cellular and non-viral


1) Mad Cow Disease (Creut-Jakob Syndrome)

Pathogen: prion protein

 

 


 

The epidemic of zoonotic diseases has caused human death, disability and incapacity to work, brought economic difficulties to many families and seriously affected social stability.


According to statistics, on a global scale, common zoonotic diseases cause about 2.4 billion illnesses and 2.7 million deaths annually in low- and middle-income countries and regions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are other zoonotic diseases besides monkeypox?

(source:internet, reference only)


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