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What are the causes and typical symptoms of esophageal cancer?
What are the causes and typical symptoms of esophageal cancer? Nitrosamine compounds are important factors leading to esophageal cancer.
First, nitrite is the precursor of nitrosamine compounds, and nitrosamine compounds are an important factor leading to esophageal cancer.
In areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer, the content of nitrosamines in food and drinking water is significantly higher than that in other areas, and is positively correlated with the local prevalence of esophageal cancer and severe esophageal epithelial hyperplasia. Nitrite is a commonly used food additive and is widely used in pickled food.
Therefore, long-term consumption of pickled foods leads to excessive intake of nitrite and is related to the onset of esophageal cancer.
Second, the histological type of esophageal cancer in some countries is mainly squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking and heavy drinking are important factors causing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Third, mycotoxins, fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium in moldy food can not only reduce nitrate to nitrite, but also promote the synthesis of carcinogens such as nitrosamines, and often cooperate with nitrosamines to cause cancer .
Fourth, precancerous diseases, precancerous diseases of esophageal cancer are also important causes of esophageal cancer.
Inflammation caused by chronic esophageal diseases such as Barrett’s esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, corrosive esophageal burns and stenosis, esophageal diverticula, achalasia, etc., can all lead to an increased incidence of esophageal cancer.
Fifth, the lack of trace elements and vitamins. The long-term lack of trace elements and vitamins in the diet, especially selenium, β-carotene, vitamin E, etc., may be one of the factors that cause esophageal cancer.
Sixth, obesity. Obesity is also a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. In domestic esophageal cancer, the middle esophageal cancer is the most common, followed by the lower esophagus.
The most typical symptom is obstruction of swallowing, and the obstruction of swallowing is gradually aggravated, manifested as choking on swallowing, difficulty in eating hard food, and difficulty in eating soft food and drinking water gradually.
- Choking sensation after swallowing food or a foreign body sensation behind the breastbone is often caused by swallowing solid food. Symptoms may not appear continuously after they first appear, and reappear after several days or months;
- And there is a sense of slow retention of food through;
- There may also be burning and tingling under the xiphoid process (upper abdomen).
- Progressive dysphagia is the most important symptom of esophageal cancer in the middle and late stages. At first, choking from eating solid foods, and then gradually increasing into severe cases will have difficulty drinking water.
- In addition, pain is also a common symptom of advanced esophageal cancer. The painful site is often located behind the sternum or the interscapular area. Patients with advanced esophageal cancer often experience persistent and severe pain, and often need to take analgesics for pain relief.
(source:internet, reference only)