Detailed information about Prostate Cancer and Suvival Rate
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Detailed information about Prostate Cancer and Suvival Rate
Detailed information about Prostate Cancer and Suvival Rate. Prostate cancer is an abnormal proliferation of prostate cells in men.
The prostate is located under the bladder and produces part of the fluid in semen. The size of the prostate in young men is about the size of a walnut.
With age, the prostate usually enlarges.
Prostate cancer is common in men over 65. It usually grows slowly and may not cause problems until many years.
Like other cancers, prostate cancer is best treated when it is detected early, and prostate cancer that has spread usually responds to treatment. Elderly patients with prostate cancer usually die from other causes.
How long can the patient live after prostate cancer treatment?
Prostate cancer has a relatively high survival rate after treatment. The five-year survival rate in the early, middle and late stages after treatment in Japan can reach about 100%, and even the five-year survival rate in the final stage is more than 60%. The following details how long to live after prostate cancer treatment?
U.S. prostate cancer treatment survival rate
In the United States in recent years, due to the launch of new technologies such as Da Vinci treatment and new drugs, the cure rate of prostate cancer is getting higher and higher.
The five-year survival rate for the treatment of primary cancer and lymphatic metastasis in the United States is extremely high, while remote metastasis is relatively poor.
Japan treats prostate cancer
|Disease stage||Number of cases (cases)||5-year relative survival rate (%)|
It is not limited to surgery (surgery), but also applies to patients who have received radiotherapy, drug therapy or other treatments. Therefore, it may be different from the survival rate of patients who only undergo surgery and are announced at each facility. Table 5 5-year relative survival rate of prostate cancer (subject: patients diagnosed in 2006-2008). Data source: Japan National Adult Disease Center Adult Disease Association in May 2017
Introduction to prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is an abnormal proliferation of prostate cells in men. The prostate is located under the bladder and produces part of the fluid in semen. The size of the prostate in young men is about the size of a walnut. With age, the prostate usually enlarges.
Prostate cancer is common in men over 65. It usually grows slowly and may not cause problems until many years. Like other cancers, prostate cancer is best treated when it is detected early, and prostate cancer that has spread usually responds to treatment. Elderly patients with prostate cancer usually die from other causes.
About the prostate
The prostate is an organ that only exists in men. It is located under the bladder and surrounds the urethra. It is shaped like a chestnut.
The prostate produces prostatic fluid contained in part of the semen. Prostatic fluid contains a protein called PSA. Most PSA is secreted from the prostate into semen, but a small part is absorbed into the blood.
Prostate cancer occurs when prostate cells lose their normal cell proliferation function and proliferate randomly. It can be cured if caught early. Moreover, it tends to progress relatively slowly.
It often metastasizes to nearby lymph nodes and bones, but it may also metastasize to the lungs, liver, etc.
Some prostate cancers progress slowly and do not seem to affect lifespan. Examination of men who died from causes other than cancer may confirm that they have prostate cancer. In this way, cancer is not found before life, and cancers that can only be found through autopsy and dissection are called latent cancers.
Stags of prostate cancer
- TX primary tumor cannot be assessed
- T0 No evidence of primary tumor
- T1 clinical recessive tumor, neither palpable nor detectable by imaging
- T1a tumor was discovered accidentally, the lesion is less than 5% of the prostate tissue
- T1b tumor was discovered accidentally, and the lesion was larger than 5% of the prostate tissue
- T1c tumor confirmed by needle biopsy (for example, due to elevated PSA)
- T2 tumor is confined to the prostate*
- T2a tumor involves half or less of one lobe
- T2b tumor affects more than half of one lobe but only one lobe
- T2c tumor affects both lobes
- T3 tumor breaks through the prostate capsule*
- T3a tumor invades beyond the capsule (unilateral or bilateral)
- T3b tumor invades one or both seminal vesicles
- T4 tumor is fixed or invades nearby other organs besides seminal vesicles: bladder neck, external urethral sphincter, rectum, levator ani muscle and/or pelvic wall
Note: *Needle biopsy finds that the tumor is located in one or two lobes, but can be palpable clinically and cannot be determined by imaging examinations, which is classified as T1c
**The tumor invaded the apex of the prostate or reached the prostate capsule (but did not break through the capsule) was classified as T2 instead of T3.
T1 is the classification of cancer when the rectal examination is not clear, and it was discovered accidentally. For example, if the PSA value exceeds the standard value, but there is no sign of abnormal rectal examination and cancer is detected by a biopsy, it is classified as T1c. T2 and above are classified by rectal examination and diagnostic imaging. T2 is a cancer that remains in the prostate, and T3 is a cancer that extends beyond the membrane covering the prostate. T4 infiltrates adjacent organs
Prostate cancer symptoms
Early-stage prostate cancer usually does not cause obvious clinical symptoms, and most patients will not find the presence of prostate cancer until the cancer is found in a routine physical examination.
If symptoms occur, the most common symptom is urination problems. But the same symptoms may also be caused by an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia), which is a common problem in older men.
If the following conditions occur, please seek medical attention as soon as possible:
- Problems with the urinary system, such as:
- Can’t urinate
- Difficulty starting or stopping urine flow
- Frequent urination, especially at night
- Pain or burning sensation when urinating
- Erection difficulties
- Blood in urine or semen
- Frequent deep pain in the lower back, abdomen, hips, or pelvis
Prostate cancer, together with prostatic hypertrophy, is one of the diseases of the prostate. The prostate is a male internal organ, which is surrounded by the urethra under the bladder. Its role, except for the secretion of prostatic fluid, has not been clearly explained.
Early prostate cancer usually has no subjective symptoms. However, symptoms such as low urine output and frequent urination may occur.
As it progresses, in addition to the aforementioned urination symptoms, pain due to blood transfer to such as hematuria and back pain can also be seen.
Analysis of related symptoms:
Frequent urination, increased nocturia, difficulty urinating, and urinary retention: As the tumor grows, symptoms of compression will appear. When the tumor compresses the bladder or ureter, symptoms such as frequent urination, increased nocturia, dysuria, and urinary retention will occur.
Pain: Tumor enlargement can cause bladder neck obstruction, ureteral obstruction, it can float up and down, and it can cause pain when the tumor itself infiltrates nerves and blood vessels.
Bone pain: Prostate cancer is prone to bone metastasis. After bone metastasis, it will cause bone pain throughout the body. The common one is low back pain, which can cause fractures when metastasized to long bones.
Systemic symptoms: fever caused by the metabolism of tumor tissue, absorption of necrotic tissue or co-infection, the body temperature is generally around 38 ℃, and a few can reach 39 ℃ or more. Anemia, weight loss and even cachexia due to bleeding and consumption.
Related diseases: Prostatic hyperplasia
Prostatic hyperplasia is a benign disease in which the number of cells in the prostate increases and increases with age. Symptoms of urination are similar to those of prostate cancer, such as low urine output, poor urination, inability to clean up after urination, frequent visits to the toilet at night, and urine leakage. It can also occur at the same time as prostate cancer.
U.S. prostate cancer treatment
The treatment of prostate cancer depends on the type and spread of cancer cells, as well as the patient’s age, health status, and individual values.
Doctors and patients may actively monitor, or they may perform surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
If you are over 80 years old or have other serious health problems such as heart disease, prostate cancer patients may not choose treatments aimed at curing cancer, but only take symptomatic treatments. This method is called watchful waiting.
Choosing a treatment method for prostate cancer is relatively complicated and may be confusing. You should have a thorough discussion with the attending doctor to choose the best treatment method that suits you.
The age and overall health of prostate cancer patients determine the impact of related treatments on the quality of life. Any health problems before treatment, especially urinary system, intestinal or sexual function problems, will affect the overall recovery level and process.
Both surgery and radiotherapy can cause urinary incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Whether the cancer has spread and the treatment method adopted determines the degree and duration of urinary incontinence after treatment and the quality of erection.
Because the nerves that affect erection are adjacent to the prostate, these nerves may be damaged when the cancer is removed. Neuroprotective surgery can be used to protect the nerves from damage. But if the cancer has spread to these nerves, it needs to be removed by surgery.
X-rays used in radiation therapy can damage the same nerves.
Drugs and mechanical aids can help patients with erectile dysfunction caused by treatment. Some patients can recover some or most of their erectile function months or even years after surgery.
First, in the’screening test’, it is checked for the possibility of prostate cancer, and if it is suspected to be cancer, a’confirmed diagnosis’ is performed. When it is confirmed that it is prostate cancer, use “stage diagnosis” to confirm the progress of cancer (the order and method of examination vary according to the medical institution). Taking into account the strong genetic factors, if there are relatives who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, it is recommended to receive PSA examination after 40 years of age.
In daily life
Daily precautions vary with symptoms and treatment conditions. When checking your physical condition, please consult a doctor and spend a reasonable amount of time.
1) Monitor daily life during treatment
Basically, there are no restrictions on daily life. Generally speaking, it is believed that five health practices and “prevention of infection” need to be combined to prevent cancer, including “quit smoking”, “sake”, “diet”, “physical activity” and “maintain proper weight”.
2) Daily life after surgery
Basically, there are no food or exercise restrictions. The main side effects of surgery are urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. For urine leakage, use urine leakage pads and disposable diapers when necessary. Replace urine pads, shower and bathe to prevent diaper rash.
3) Daily life after radiotherapy
Basically, there are no restrictions on food or exercise, but you should not overdo it because it may cause loss of appetite and loss of appetite. Drinking alcohol may aggravate the symptoms of urination, so it may be better to stop the medication based on the symptoms. After treatment, inflammation, frequent urination, pain during defecation, bleeding during defecation, hematuria, etc. may occur in the irradiated area. Healing may take months or years. If symptoms are severe, consult a doctor.
4) Daily life after medication
Basically, there are no restrictions on diet or exercise, but various side effects may occur, such as fatigue and loss of appetite. If you have symptoms, consult your doctor.
5) About sex and pregnancy
Let us take contraceptive measures during treatment. Treatment has various effects on sex and pregnancy, and there are ways to deal with them. If you want to become pregnant, please consult your doctor before treatment.
Follow-up depends on the condition, but every 3 months to 2 years after treatment, and every 6 months thereafter, after 2 years of treatment, approximately once a year thereafter. If necessary, I will receive physical examination, PSA examination, and imaging examination. . If you have symptoms that you are concerned about, please seek medical attention and consult your doctor as soon as possible.
Treatment of complications
1) Urinary incontinence
It is said that pelvic floor muscle exercise can effectively improve urinary incontinence. When necessary, drugs are prescribed to stabilize the function of the bladder muscles and enhance the function of the urethral sphincter. If urinary incontinence does not improve, surgery can be performed by inserting an artificial urethral sphincter that can manually control urination. This is covered by insurance.
2) Sexual dysfunction
It is said that sexual dysfunction is missing or insufficient in one or more of sexual desire, erection, intercourse, and extreme sensation. Sexual dysfunction occurs when nerves and blood vessels that are important for regulating sexual function are damaged during surgery or the like. Things that may happen after treatment include erectile dysfunction, ejaculation dysfunction, and loss of libido. In order to maintain these functions during treatment, we will try to avoid nerve damage as much as possible, but in some cases, it may be difficult to protect nerves in order to prioritize not leaving cancer.
Erectile dysfunction is a condition where an erection cannot be achieved during sexual intercourse.
1. Check for erectile dysfunction
First, we interviewed and heard symptoms, and then we performed an examination based on the patient, blood test, urine test, injection test to cause erection, and we used a machine to check the erection state at night (such as Lijiscan plus). In normal men, the physiological phenomenon that causes the erection phenomenon is consistent with the REM sleep period (REM period: sleep state in dreams), but if there is no natural erection at night, there may be disorders such as penile tissue, nerves and blood vessels involved in erection.
2. Treatment of erectile dysfunction basis
Check the results and we will decide the treatment plan. Treatment methods include the following.
Many men feel frustrated and troubled by erectile dysfunction. When discussing with the doctor, it is effective to solve psychological problems with your partner as much as possible.
Japan, three prescription drugs, sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levidra) and tadalafil (Cialis), treat erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. The drug is used to promote erections caused by sexual stimulation, but after long-term endocrine therapy, libido is reduced, and the effect of the drug is also reduced. Side effects include headaches and hot flashes, but they are mild and short-lived. If you take nitroglycerin, you cannot take it internally. There are many fake medicines on the Internet, so we need to be very careful. Be sure to consult a doctor and use it.
Negative pressure erection aid treatment Negative pressure erection aid is a device that applies negative pressure to the penis and winds a rubber band around the base of the penis to cause a false erection. The device works well in many situations, but there are differences in satisfaction. There is a thick VCD sanki approved by the Ministry of Labor and Welfare, but there is no insurance application.
(2) Ejaculation disorder
In prostate cancer surgery, the vas deferens is cut, so ejaculation cannot be performed after the surgery. However, this does not mean that pregnancy is impossible at all, but there are ways to collect sperm in advance and artificially inseminate between spouses, or even collect sperm from the testes after surgery and perform in vitro fertilization between spouses.
Monitoring therapy is a way to prevent overtreatment, while monitoring whether the cancer found in the prostate biopsy is silent, and if it is judged that there is no impact on survival without starting treatment. In monitoring therapy, rectal examination and PSA examination are performed every 3 to 6 months, prostate biopsy is performed every 1 to 3 years, and the start of treatment is checked when signs of deterioration are seen. Monitoring therapy is widely used and is important in order to prevent pain and loss of quality of life of patients associated with treatments such as surgery.
Comprehensively judge the appropriate conditions for monitoring therapy, including a PSA value of 10 ng/mL or lower, a T2 or lower stage, a Gleason score of 6 or lower, and other indicators. In monitoring treatment, the PSA level is measured every 3 to 6 months to check the rate of increase. If the time for the PSA value to double (PSA doubling time) is considered to be 2 years or more, follow-up will continue.
Local treatment (local treatment)
Local treatment is a treatment concept that lies between curative treatment and surgery and other radical treatments. It aims to balance normal treatment and maintenance of body function, while preserving cancer as much as possible when treating cancer. Cancer that remains in the prostate can be one of the treatment options. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), cryotherapy, brachytherapy can be used. Because focal treatment involves a variety of treatments, it is difficult to evaluate after treatment, and there is currently no basis. It is important to consult your doctor and determine the treatment.
Surgery (surgical treatment)
During the operation, the prostate and seminal vesicles are removed, and then a total prostatectomy is performed to connect the bladder and urethra. The lymph nodes around the prostate can also be removed during surgery (lymph node dissection). If the cancer is still present in the prostate and the expected life expectancy is determined to be 10 years or more, surgery is most often recommended, but it will still apply if the cancer has spread outside the prostate capsule. Surgical methods include open surgery, laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery.
1) Open surgery (retropubic prostatectomy)
Open surgery is a method of making a straight incision in the lower abdomen during general anesthesia and epidural anesthesia.
2) Laparoscopic surgery (laparoscopic radical prostatectomy)
Laparoscopic surgery is a method in which small holes are opened, the abdomen is inflated with carbon dioxide, and a special camera or instrument is used to perform the operation. Because the amount of bleeding is small and the size of the wound is small compared with open surgery, the body burden is small and the recovery from complications is quick.
3) Robotic surgery (robot-assisted total prostatectomy)
Robotic surgery is a method in which several small holes are made in the lower abdomen and the surgical robot (Davinci surgery Davinci) is remotely controlled using precise cameras and tweezers. Control fine hand shaking, and perform precise surgery while watching the magnified screen. Robotic surgery has the same anti-cancer effect (inhibiting the growth of cancer cells) as open surgery, and it is said that the wound is smaller than open surgery, and the recovery of complications is faster than laparoscopic surgery.
4) Postoperative complications
The main complications after surgery are urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction.
(1) Urinary incontinence
During the operation, damage to the muscles that control the discharge of urine (urethral sphincter) may make the urethra tighter and may leak urine when coughing. In order to prevent this, the nerves and urethral sphincter are preserved as much as possible during the operation, but it is difficult to prevent it completely. Although urinary incontinence usually lasts for several months after surgery, it recovers within about six months without harming life. However, a complete cure may be difficult.
(2) Sexual dysfunction
After surgery, erectile dysfunction will almost certainly occur. The recovery of erectile dysfunction varies according to the degree of nerve preservation, age, erectile ability before surgery, etc., but it is usually difficult to fully recover. However, it is said that drinking medication is effective for erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing surgery.
Radiation therapy is a treatment that uses high-energy X-rays or electron beams to destroy cancer cells and make them smaller. There are external radiotherapy and interstitial radiotherapy. There are various methods, and the treatment period and side effects are characterized. However, since there is no direct comparison of the data for each method, it is difficult to say which method is best. Foreign research published the results of clinical trials, that is, the combination of interstitial and external radiotherapy is more effective than external radiotherapy alone. However, it is reported that even if the efficacy is exceeded, there are many side effects. Talk to your doctor and decide on a treatment plan.
1) External radiation therapy
External radiation therapy is a method of irradiating the prostate from outside the body. By using a computer to match the treatment area to the shape of the prostate, three-dimensional conformal radiation can be used, which reduces the amount of exposure to surrounding organs (rectum and bladder), and its evolutionary form can be intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). . Generally speaking, it takes about 7 to 8 weeks a week, 5 times a week.
There is also a method that focuses the dose on the target from various directions called stereotactic radiotherapy, and in many cases, it is treated in about 5 hours.
In addition, there are particle beam treatments using particle beams (proton beams, heavy particle beams). The X-ray treatment maximizes the dose near the surface of the body, while the particle therapy can be adjusted to maximize the dose deep inside the body (with cancer). However, the facilities that can be enforced are limited.
The main side effects of external beam radiation therapy are divided into acute phase (occurring within 3 months) and later occurrence. The acute side effects are frequent urination and frequent urination and pain during defecation. Late side effects include bleeding and hematuria during bowel movements. Treatment of side effects may take several years, but they are not common, and severe cases are rare.
2) Intra-tissue radiotherapy (sealed brachytherapy)
Internal radiotherapy is a method in which a container of small particles sealed with a radiation-emitting substance (radiation source) is placed in the prostate and irradiated from the body. Because the radiation source is very close to the cancer tissue, it is difficult to change its position, and very high doses can be irradiated.
However, if you have surgery to remove the prostate because of BPH, this treatment is not possible. In addition, if the prostate is too large, part of it may be hidden behind the pubic bone, so the source may not be implanted. In this case, endocrine therapy can be given before treatment to make the prostate smaller.
The main method of interstitial radiotherapy is the ratio of permanent implantation (sealed brachytherapy, permanent insertion therapy (LDR: low dose rate)) and temporary implantation (high dose rate interstitial radiation (HDR: high dose)). ]).
Brachytherapy uses a special machine to implant the source of the vagina (between the yin and anus) into the prostate with a special machine, anesthesia and ultrasound confirmation. The treatment is over half a day, but at least one night after the operation, he needs to be hospitalized. The embedded radioactive material does not need to be removed because it loses its efficacy in about half a year. The radiation remains in the body, but it hardly affects the people around you.
The high-dose rate interstitial radiation temporarily pierces the prostate with a tubular needle, and then irradiates the radiation through the source. It varies according to the facility, but the treatment is usually divided into several times, and when the needle is stuck, a break is required.
External radiotherapy has many side effects related to defecation, while the side effects of internal radiotherapy have many characteristics related to urination. Within 3 months after treatment, urination and urination gradually progressed. Over the next year or so, the side effects of urination gradually decreased. Urinary incontinence is rare. In addition, according to age, compared with external beam radiotherapy, it is characterized by a high rate of maintaining sexual function. However, the volume of semen has decreased.
1) Endocrine therapy (hormone therapy)
Prostate cancer has the characteristic of disease progression by stimulating androgens (male hormones) secreted by the testes and adrenal glands. Endocrine therapy is a treatment method that suppresses the motility of prostate cancer through drugs that interfere with androgen secretion and function. Endocrine therapy is used when it is difficult to perform surgery or radiotherapy, or when cancer has spread to other organs before or after radiotherapy.
(1) Problems with endocrine therapy
The problem with endocrine therapy is that if you continue the treatment for a long time, the response will be weakened and you will have a “relapse”, leading to a relapse. Endocrine therapy is an effective treatment for prostate cancer, but it is difficult to completely cure it with this treatment alone. If you relapse, female hormones and corticosteroids can be used, but even if they are effective at first, they will become less effective.
(2) Treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer
A cancer that relapses and is diagnosed as a weakened endocrine therapy is called castration-resistant prostate cancer. As a drug treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer, we sometimes use extane, which inhibits the androgen acceptor, and abiraterone acetate (Zytiga), which inhibits androgen synthesis. It can also be combined with chemotherapy and corticosteroid therapy.
(3) Side effects of endocrine therapy
Side effects of endocrine therapy include hot flashes (hot flashes, hot flashes, sudden sweating), sexual dysfunction, breast symptoms, skeletal effects, and fatigue. Sexual dysfunction leads to erectile dysfunction and loss of libido. Because the treatment causes androgens and relatively high levels of estrogen (which are also present in men at first), the breasts may become larger (feminized breasts) and pain may be felt in the nipple. The effect on bones is a decrease in bone density and an increased risk of fractures. The symptoms are short-lived and are often used gradually, but if the side effects are too strong, you may change the type of medication or stop treatment.
The following table. Main drugs used for endocrine therapy of prostate cancer
|Drug name||Management method||Efficacy, usage, etc.|
|LH-RH (Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone) Agonist|
|Goserelin Acetate (Zoladex)
Leuprolide Acetate (Leuprin
|Subcutaneous injection||It acts on the pituitary gland and reduces the production of testosterone (an androgen). I inject an outpatient every other month, three months or six months. A brief rise in testosterone (sudden attack) may occur at the beginning of the administration.|
|oral||It is a steroidal antiandrogen that inhibits androgen function. Anti-androgens can also block the secretion of androgens from the adrenal glands.|
|Flutamide, bicalutamide (Odine, Casodex)||oral||It is a non-steroidal anti-androgen that can inhibit the effects of androgens. By combining with LH-RH (Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone) agonists, we can expect improvement in treatment results (CAB treatment).|
|oral||It is a drug that inhibits the androgen receptor. As a treatment method for castration-resistant prostate cancer, it has been successfully used after treatment with docetaxel hydrate. Side effects include fatigue, loss of appetite and weakness, but it is said to be relatively safe.|
|Abiraterone Acetate (Zytigga)||oral||It is a drug that inhibits androgen synthesis.|
|Degarelix acetate (Gonnax)||Subcutaneous injection||It acts on the pituitary gland and reduces the production of testosterone (an androgen). It is characterized by immediate action to avoid transient rises in testosterone levels (sudden attacks).|
|Ethinyl estradiol (Proxole)||oral||It may be used to show resistance to endocrine therapy.|
Chemotherapy aims to kill or reduce cancer cells through injections, drips, or medications. Generally speaking, it is suitable for cancer with metastasis, and endocrine therapy is ineffective.
Table 4. Main drugs used in prostate cancer chemotherapy
|Drug name||Management method||Efficacy, usage, etc.|
(Taxotere, a kind of Taxotere)
|Intravenous injection||It is recommended for corticosteroids (prednisolone). Side effects include anemia, hair loss, loss of appetite and fatigue.|
|Intravenous injection||It can be used after treatment with docetaxel hydrate. Side effects include neutropenia, anemia, and diarrhea.|
|Estracite Sodium Phosphate Hydrate (Estracite)||oral||It is mainly used to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer. It has the combined effects of cytotoxic anticancer drugs and antiandrogens. With the advent of new drugs such as abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and cabazitaxel, the chances of using it have diminished.|
The main treatments for prostate cancer are surveillance, surgery (surgery), radiation therapy, endocrine therapy (hormonal therapy) and chemotherapy. A variety of treatment methods can be provided. We choose treatment options based on PSA level, tumor grade (Gleason score), risk classification, age, life expectancy (how long can you live from now), and consider patient treatment.
From the Capital Urology Society
Treating cancer can affect fertility. If you wish to have a child in the future, please consult your doctor before starting treatment, if fertility preservation treatments can be treated (treatments that maintain easy pregnancy).
Monitoring therapy and radiation therapy can be selected in the low-risk group. Surgery and radiotherapy can be selected from low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk groups. When radiotherapy is used for high-risk groups, long-term endocrine therapy is recommended.
Cancer that has spread to nearby organs is treated with radiation and endocrine therapy. You may have surgery.
Cancers with metastases undergo endocrine therapy or chemotherapy.
The most common way to check for prostate cancer is to test the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. A higher PSA level may indicate prostate cancer, but it may also be caused by an enlarged prostate or prostate infection.
If the PSA is elevated, the patient may need a prostate biopsy to find out the cause. A biopsy is when a doctor takes a tissue sample from the prostate and sends it to a laboratory for testing.
Factors that cause prostate cancer
Medical experts currently do not know the cause of prostate cancer, but believe that factors such as the patient’s age, family history (genetics), and race will affect the probability of the disease.
(source:internet, reference only)
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