February 24, 2024

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Metabolic diseases increasing gloably and obesity kills 5 million people a year

Metabolic diseases increasing gloably and obesity kills 5 million people a year



 

Metabolic diseases increasing gloably and obesity kills 5 million people a year

Global burden of metabolic disease: Incidence continues to rise, obesity kills 5 million people a year

 

The growing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases has become a major global public health problem.

Non-communicable diseases are estimated to account for a large proportion of premature deaths and impose a large economic burden. These significant burdens are due in part to the increase in metabolic diseases worldwide.

 

Metabolic diseases include hypertension (HTN) , type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) , hyperlipidemia (HLD) , obesity , and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) .

Multiple of these disorders may co-occur, share common risk factors, and are associated with increased risk of disability, cancer, and premature death.

 

Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data provide global estimates of mortality by age, sex, and location and can be used to understand changes in the current burden of metabolic disease over time.

Previous GBD studies have focused on the increase in deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for each disease in isolation .

But the total global burden of metabolic disease and its relative distribution worldwide remain poorly understood.

 

Recently, the National University of Singapore, together with researchers from the United States and China, published a research paper entitled: The global burden of metabolic disease: Data from 2000 to 2019 in Cell Metabolism, a sub-journal of Cell.

The study analyzed metabolic disease data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report for the 20 years from 2000 to 2019 .

The analysis showed an increase in the incidence of all metabolic diseases , including hypertension (HTN) , type 2 diabetes (T2DM) , hyperlipidemia (HLD) , obesity , and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) . The increase in the burden of metabolic disease was most pronounced in countries with higher average income, educational attainment, and fertility.

From 2000 to 2019, mortality from hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and NAFLD decreased over time, but mortality from type 2 diabetes and obesity did not.

Mortality rates are highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region and in countries with low to moderate levels of development.

 

Metabolic diseases increasing gloably and obesity kills 5 million people a year

 

Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data is collected and analyzed by a consortium of more than 9,000 researchers from 162 countries and regions around the world.

The data document premature death and disability from 370 diseases and injuries by age and sex in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to the present.

 

In other words, the GBD report provides a comprehensive picture of disability and causes of death in different countries, at different times, and for people of different ages and sexes.

Armed with this information, individuals, clinicians, and policymakers can make informed health decisions about how best to avoid death.

 

Previous analyzes of GBD data have focused on the contribution of specific diseases to deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) , but in this study, the research team wanted to gain insight into metabolic diseases , including hypertension, 2 trends and burdens of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) .

And compare them by gender, geographic region and socioeconomic status.

 

The research team analyzed GBD data from 2000-2019. Overall, in 2019 , there were an estimated 43.8 million cases of type 2 diabetes, 18.5 million cases of hypertension and 1.2 billion cases of NAFLD. Incidence data for hyperlipidemia and obesity were not available in the GBD data.

 

Among the overall trends in mortality from metabolic diseases from 2000 to 2019, obesity had the highest absolute burden and showed a steady upward trend, followed by hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and NAFLD, with similar trends in DALYs.

 

In 2019, obesity has the largest number of deaths, with 5 million deaths , hyperlipidemia (HLD) 4.3 million, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) 1.4 million, hypertension (HTN) 1.1 million, non Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) 168969 people.

 

Obesity accounts for the largest proportion of metabolic disease-related mortality (40.36% and 41.83% for men and women, respectively) .

Similarly, most disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) related to metabolic diseases are also contributed by obesity (43.76% for men and women, respectively % and 47.85%) .

 

Metabolic diseases increasing gloably and obesity kills 5 million people a year

 

 

 

 

Type 2 diabetes

In 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 5282 per 100,000 people (5687 per 100,000 men and 4907 per 100,000 women) , and from 2000 to 2019, the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes The burden increased by 1.56% per year (1.64% for men and 1.51% for women) .

From 2000 to 2019, the regions with the largest increases in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) -related age-standardized incidence rates were the Eastern Mediterranean, the Americas, and South-East Asia regions, with the smallest increases in the Western Pacific, Africa, and European countries.

 

Type 2 diabetes-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were 6.6 million years, and from 2000 to 2019, age-standardized DALYs increased by 0.77% per year (0.89% for men and 0.67% for women) .

 

In 2019, the age-standardized mortality rate of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was 18.49/100,000 (19.94/100,000 for men and 17.30/100,000 for women) .

From 2000 to 2019, the overall trend in age-standardized mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was 8%, with an insignificant annual increase.

 

Hypertension

In 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate of hypertension was 234/100,000 (241/100,000 for men and 225/100,000 for women) .

Between 2000 and 2019, the incidence of hypertension increased by 0.20% per year, with a 0.36% increase observed only in women and no increase in men.

From 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate of hypertension increased the most in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region, while it decreased in Europe and South-East Asia.

 

Hypertension-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were 21.5 million years, but age-standardized DALYs decreased by 0.76% per year (0.61% for men and 0.91% for women) .

 

In 2019, the age-standardized death rate of hypertensive patients was 15.16/100,000 (14.95/100,000 for men and 15.05/100,000 for women) .

From 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized death rate associated with hypertension decreased by 0.52% (0.60% in women and 0.42% in men) .

 

 

 

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

 

In 2019, the age-standardized prevalence rate of NAFLD was 15,023/100,000 (16,790/100,000 males and 13,279/100,000 females) .

From 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate associated with NAFLD increased by 0.83% per year, with a greater increase in men (0.95%) than women (0.68%) .

 

The age-standardized incidence rates of NAFLD were highest in the Eastern Mediterranean, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

From 2000 to 2019, the Western Pacific Region had the greatest increase in age-standardized incidence rates associated with NAFLD. 

The DALYs associated with NAFLD were 4.4 million, and the age-standardized DALYs decreased by 0.63% per year from 2000 to 2019 (0.48% in men and 0.77% in women) .

 

In 2019, the age-standardized mortality rate of NAFLD patients was 2.09/100,000 (2.38/100,000 males and 1.82/100,000 females) .

From 2000 to 2019, the overall age-standardized death rate among NAFLD patients decreased by 0.52% per year (0.60% in men and 0.44% in women) .

 

Hyperlipidemia

In 2019, the age-standardized mortality rate of patients with hyperlipidemia was 56.51/100,000 (67.33/100,000 males and 46.50/100,000 females) .

From 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized death rate associated with hyperlipidemia decreased by 1.54% per year (1.37% in men and 1.68% in women) .

The DALYs related to hyperlipidemia were 98 million years. From 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized DALYs related to hyperlipidemia decreased by 1.37% per year (1.33% for men and 1.49% for women) .

 

Age-standardized mortality from hyperlipidemia was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region, followed by Europe and Southeast Asia, and lowest in the Americas and Africa region.

From 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized mortality rate associated with hyperlipidemia decreased the most in Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean, and Africa, while the regions of the Americas and South-East Asia showed the largest increases.

 

Obesity

In 2019, the obesity-related age-standardized mortality rate was 62.59/100,000 (66.55/100,000 males and 58.14/100,000 females) .

From 2000 to 2019, the obesity-related age-standardized mortality rate did not change (the age-standardized death rate decreased in obese women and increased in obese men) .

 

Obesity-related DALYs were 160.2 million years, and from 2000 to 2019, obesity-related age-standardized DALYs increased by 0.48% per year (0.74% for men and 0.25% for women) .

 

Obesity-related age-standardized mortality rates were highest in the eastern Mediterranean, Africa, and Europe, and lowest in the Western Pacific and South-East Asia.

From 2000 to 2019, obesity-related age-standardized mortality rates declined the most in Europe and the Americas, while increases in Southeast Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, Africa, and the Western Pacific.

 

The incidence of metabolic diseases has been increasing over the past two decades , posing a huge burden on global health .

Of concern are the lack of decline in mortality from type 2 diabetes and obesity over the past 20 years, as well as regional, socioeconomic, and sex differences in mortality from metabolic disease.

There is an urgent need to implement effective prevention and treatment strategies at the individual, community, and national levels to reduce mortality from metabolic diseases, as well as sex-regional-socioeconomic disparities in mortality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paper link :

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2023.02.003

Metabolic diseases increasing gloably and obesity kills 5 million people a year

(source:internet, reference only)


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