June 29, 2022

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New discovery of oxidant: delay cell aging

New discovery of oxidant: delay cell aging

New discovery of oxidant: delay cell aging. Article on the news website of the US “Science Daily” November 9, 2020, Title: Oxidants can delay cell senescence. In experiments, reducing calorie intake can significantly extend the lifespan of everything from yeast to monkeys.

[Article on the news website of the US "Science Daily" November 9, 2020] Title: Oxidants can delay cell senescence.

 

One of the benefits of antioxidants (such as vitamin C and E) is to neutralize active oxygen (that is, oxidant). Active oxygen may react with important molecules in the human body and destroy its biological function. For example, a large number of oxidants can affect DNA, Severe damage to cell membranes and proteins. Therefore, our cells use powerful defense mechanisms to eliminate the oxidants formed in normal metabolism.

People used to think that oxidants were only harmful, but recently we have learned that they also have positive effects. A new study from Chalmers University of Technology shows that hydrogen peroxide can actually slow the senescence of yeast cells. Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical substance used for hair and whitening teeth. It is also an oxidant formed during metabolism. It is harmful to the human body at higher concentrations.

Through research by researchers on the Tsa1 enzyme (part of a group of antioxidants called peroxidase), Mikael Molin, head of the research team in the Department of Biology and Bioengineering at Chalmers, said that previous studies have shown that these Enzymes are involved in the defense process of yeast cells against harmful oxidants, but when the cells are restricted by calories, peroxidase also helps to prolong the lifespan of the cells, but the mechanisms behind these functions have not yet been fully solved.

As we all know, reducing calorie intake can significantly extend the lifespan of everything from yeast to monkeys. Several research groups, including the Mikael Molin research group, also showed that in organisms such as yeast, flies, and worms, when they absorb less calories from food than normal, stimulating the activity of peroxidase slows down cells Better aging effect.

Cecilia Picazo, a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Systems and Synthetic Biology at Chalmers, said that we used to think that Tsa1 enzyme only neutralizes reactive oxygen species, but now we have shown that Tsa1 enzyme actually needs a certain amount of hydrogen peroxide to trigger it in order to participate in slowing The senescence process of yeast cells.

Surprisingly, the Tsa1 enzyme does not affect the level of hydrogen peroxide in senescent yeast cells. On the contrary, when the cells get fewer calories, the Tsa1 enzyme uses a small amount of hydrogen peroxide to reduce the activity of the central signaling pathway. This effect will eventually slow down the processes related to cell division and the formation of cell components, and also stimulate the cells to stress Defense, which causes them to age more slowly.

Mikael Molin said that signaling pathways affected by calorie intake may play an important role in aging by sensing the state of many cellular processes and controlling them. We hope to find out the common diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes through research. The molecular reason that the incidence rate increases sharply with age.

Researchers are now one step closer to the mechanism by which oxidants really slow down the aging process. This may lead to new research, such as finding drugs that stimulate peroxidase, or testing whether other drugs that can enhance the positive effects of oxidants in the body can be used. Slow down age-related diseases.

 

(source:chinanet, reference only)


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