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“Longevity medicine” NMN banned in China
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“Longevity medicine” NMN banned in China. Previously, NMNhas become the focus of the world’s common attention.
The much-hyped “longevity medicine” NMN is being scrutinized by the State Administration for Market Supervision, and it has also been questioned by the top international academic journal “Molecular Cell”.
The State Administration of Market Supervision of China issued a document last week to investigate the illegal operation of nicotinamide mononucleic acid (NMN), stating that NMN cannot be used as a medicine, health care product, or food in China.
NMN is the biosynthetic precursor of NAD+. Early basic studies have shown that insufficient supply of NAD+ may not only cause cell senescence, but also tissue decline.
An article in “Cell” three years ago showed that NMN can restore muscle blood vessel density and exercise capacity in mice, and the decrease in capillary density and insufficient blood supply to tissues are an important sign of aging.
Therefore, some scientists believe that supplementing with NMN can prolong life, and NMN has also become a popular health food.
However, there is currently no clinical trial evidence showing that NMN can prolong life or improve the quality of life, and the safety is unknown, so it cannot be used as a longevity medicine.
On what basis is NMN considered/declared as anti-aging?
NMN is the abbreviation of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide. It is a molecule that exists in all life forms. At the molecular level, it is ribonucleotide, the basic structural unit of nucleic acid RNA.
NMN is the direct precursor of the important molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), and is considered to be a key component to increase the level of NAD+ in cells.
NAMPT first recovers nicotinamide into NMN, and then converts it into NAD+ through different NMNATs.
This enzyme can convert nicotinamide into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), and then into NAD+ from different NMNATs, and the core molecule NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a kind of Coenzymes in living cells.
It is not only a key coenzyme for catalyzing reduction-oxidation reactions and other enzymes, but also a co-substrate of other enzymes such as sirtuins and polymerases.
It is an indispensable coenzyme component of various enzyme proteins in the human body and plays an important role in various activities in the human body.
NAD+ is the most abundant molecule in the human body except water. Without it, organisms will die.
It is also important for mitochondria, which are the energy source of cells and produce chemical energy used by our bodies.
Therefore, the reduction of NAD+ level has been shown to cause the metabolic function disorder in the human aging process.
In other words, in order to fight aging and achieve true “eternal youth”, it is necessary to increase the content of NAD+ in the human body to achieve many effects.
At this time, someone may ask, why not just choose to increase the content of NAD+?
Because the molecular weight of NAD+ is too large, most people choose to take NMN to increase the content of NAD+, so that people can slow down aging, maintain youthful vitality, increase energy in the body, and then reduce the incidence of related diseases.
What are the benefits of NMN to the human body?
- Anti-Aging: Improve sleep and enhance memory
- DNA repair: Repair DNA of patients who have received radiotherapy and chemotherapy and people who have been irradiated
- Diabetes: Improve type 2 diabetes caused by non-congenital factors such as diet
- Increase endurance: Enhance athlete’s muscle endurance
- Neurocognition: Improve senile dementia, Parkinson, etc.
- Cardiovascular: Improve chronic cardiovascular diseases
- Hangover and protect liver: Promote alcohol metabolism and improve people’s tolerance to alcohol
- Protect sight and hearing: Rescue retinal disorders and protect ear neurons and tissues
The development process of NMN
Since the discovery of NAD+ in 1906, this molecule has always received attention from scientists because it is abundant in the human body and plays an important role in maintaining the molecular pathways of our body.
In animal studies, increasing the level of NAD+ in the body has shown good results in research fields such as metabolism and age-related diseases, and even shows some anti-aging properties.
In biology, with age, the function of mitochondria in human cells gradually declines, leading to the gradual loss of cell homeostasis and body health.
Experts once believed that reactive oxygen species in mitochondria are the main cause of human aging. However, studies on long-lived species in 2010 overturned this hypothesis. Mitochondrial regulation does play a role in the aging process.
Among them, they found that due to nuclear NAD+ levels The change in the cell activity decreases, causing them to appear pseudo-hypoxic balance.
Increasing the NAD+ content can reverse this process, which is of great significance for the treatment of aging-related diseases including cancer.
In 2014, Derek Lowe showed that NMN was used to treat aging mice for a week, and its anti-aging effect was confirmed, and the Washington research team also confirmed that adding NMN to aging diabetic rodents has a very similar effect, NAD+ The level of recovery, whether it is a mouse or a worm with muscle degeneration, can improve muscle function.
The result is the production of more mitochondria, more muscle structural proteins, and reduced inflammation.
Subsequently, scientists continue to obtain human and animal experimental research results in this regard, confirming that NMN can increase the level of NAD+ in the body, thereby achieving the purpose of delaying aging.
From then on, NMN has slowly changed its identity, gradually transforming from the shelves of health care products stores, because anti-aging has always been a hot topic. Once successful, its value is immeasurable, and people have seen it. The huge business opportunity and start research and development.
The Waldorf effect of NMN
What’s interesting is that MIT scientists published an article on NAD+ in the journal Molecular Cell last week, explaining a Waltzer effect that has puzzled the academia for 100 years, that is, although tumors require a lot of energy to grow rapidly, they use energy production. Produces less efficient glycolysis. Any final biological decision that wins is a comprehensive decision that balances the various pros and cons.
The previous explanation for the Waldorff effect is that although the energy output efficiency of glycolysis is low, it can produce a large amount of raw materials for cell replication, so it can maximize tumor reproduction. .
The MIT study found that tumors require a large amount of NAD+ for redox reactions, and the aerobic metabolism of ATP and NAD+ are coupled together.
Therefore, if ATP is the center, the supply of NAD+ cannot be guaranteed, and glycolysis can more balance the supply of ATP and NAD+. This study also shows that blocking NAD+ may become a tumor treatment strategy.
NAD+ can not only promote tumor growth but also prolong longevity, which is obviously a contradiction. From a biological point of view, the immortality of cells is fundamentally different from that of the human body. Immortality cells are more often associated with tumors.
If the cells grow out of control, although local survival is dominant, it is harmful to the overall health of the host.
This is why in theory, tumor cells with faster proliferation compete with normal cells for the dominant position, and cells should hope to mutate and overtake early.
But most people do not have one of the reasons for tumors.
The human body has formulated rules to limit disordered cell proliferation in the long process of evolution, such as immune monitoring, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair and other mechanisms.
The current physiological level of NAD+ is not determined by the forehead.
The main pressure for species selection in the evolutionary process is to pass on from generation to generation.
The optimization of all biological functions is based on the success of reproduction of the next generation as the core goal, and longevity is not a major evaluation indicator.
After the succession of the lineage is completed, the individual’s impact on the entire species has been minimal.
Therefore, the subsequent cellular behavior mainly depends on the discipline and restraint established in the early life of life. Even if there is no intention, there will be no new natural selection family law to serve.
Modern medicine is the development of laws and regulations formulated by the expansion and evolution.
It is hoped that through technical intervention, the cells and tissues of individuals who have completed the lineage will continue to maintain a sense of responsibility for the survival of individuals.
For example, tumor therapy guides cells to continue to focus on the overall situation, and do not sacrifice the survival advantage of the host for local growth.
Longevity medicine is to extend the state of cells before the individual reproduces. NAD+ is just one of countless intervention technologies.
However, the complexity of the organism makes it almost impossible to predict the overall function from changing the cell state, and drug treatment cannot take the crude way of survival of the fittest.
NAD+ is indeed very important for cell function at the cellular level, but if NAD+ falls into the hands of cells with malpractice, it will shorten the life of the host.
In fact, tumor cells sacrifice more efficient aerobic metabolism in order to obtain more NAD+. Whether NMN extends the life of normal cells or does it require more basic and clinical research.
“Longevity medicine” NMN banned in China
(source:internet, reference only)